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Biomedical Reviews

Editor's Foreword

George Chaldakov


The Hierarchy of Data-Information-Knowledge-Wisdom as an epistemological system is usually associated with Russell Ackoff (1) although elements of it are envisaged in poetic form by T.S. Eliot in his 1934 ”The Rock”:


Where is the Life we have lost in living?

Where is the wisdom we have lost in knowledge?

Where is the knowledge we have lost in information?


Today we may add one more question: ”Where is the intellectual humility and reciprocal respect we have lost in competition and in ”publish or perish” paradigm?” Reminding Theodore Roszak who wrote in 1972: ”In the conditions of spiritual disintegration in which we live, modern man is in search of a soul” (2). And inside the latter – the empathy. Indeed, Homo economicus rather than Homo empathicus is a global psychosocial phenomenon (3 and essays therein).

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George Chaldakov

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