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Biomedical Reviews

Ethanol Consumption and Innate Neuroimmunity

Stefania Ciafrè, Valentina Carito, Paola Tirassa, Giampiero Ferraguti, Maria Luisa Attilia, Paola Ciolli, Marisa Patrizia Messina, Mauro Ceccanti, Marco Fiore

Abstract

Emerging researches from human and animal models have shown the role of ethanol in innate immune system modulation, particularly in the central nervous system. The activation of receptors of the innate immunity, Toll-like receptors and nucleotide- binding oligomerization domain-like (NOD-like) receptors, triggers the signaling pathways that bring to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which, in turn, provokes neuroinflammation and neural damage. The neuroimmune system response to ethanol intake, in specific brain regions such as amygdala, hippocampus and frontal cortex, is involved in addiction and in behavioural deficits observed in alcoholism. In murine models, the knockout for Toll-like or NODlike receptors abolishes most of the effects of ethanol on the immune system and preserves these mice from neural damage, neuroinflammation and alcohol dependence. Molecular targeting of immune system pathways is a new and promising area of research for the discovery of new biomarkers for neuroinflammation and for the development of novel pharmacotherapies in order to treat neurological and behavioural consequences of ethanol addiction. Biomed Rev 2017; 28: 49-61.

 

Keywords: ethanol addiction, neuroinflammation, neuroimmunity, Toll-like receptors, NOD-like receptors, inflammasomes


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14748/bmr.v28.4451

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About The Authors

Stefania Ciafrè
Institute of Translational Pharmacology, CNR, Rome Institute of Cell Biology and Neurobiology, IBCN-CNR, Rome
Italy

Valentina Carito
Institute of Cell Biology and Neurobiology, IBCN-CNR, Rome
Italy

Paola Tirassa
Institute of Cell Biology and Neurobiology, IBCN-CNR, Rome
Italy

Giampiero Ferraguti
Sapienza University, Rome
Italy

Department of Cellular Biotechnologies and Hematology

Maria Luisa Attilia
Sapienza University, Rome
Italy

Centro Riferimento Alcologico Regione Lazio

Paola Ciolli
Sapienza University, Rome
Italy

Department of Gynecology and Obstetric, and Urology

Marisa Patrizia Messina
Sapienza University, Rome
Italy

Centro Riferimento Alcologico Regione Lazio

Mauro Ceccanti
Sapienza University, Rome
Italy

Centro Riferimento Alcologico Regione Lazio

Marco Fiore
Institute of Cell Biology and Neurobiology, IBCN-CNR, Rome
Italy

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