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Journal of the Union of Scientists - Varna. Medicine and Ecology Series

Epidemiological research on the incidence of malocclusions among mouth-breathing children with primary and mixed dentition

Zornitsa Valcheva, Hristina Arnautska, Gergana Ivanova, Iliyana Atanasova


Introduction: A literature review established that the number of mouth-breathing children varies between 5-75%. Girls are more often diagnosed with this condition compared to the boys. In the 19th century Linder-Aronson established the relationship between mouth-breathing and malocclusions. The recognition of the mouth-breathing pattern and the habitual mouth breathing as factors in developing malocclusions requires prophylaxis and timely treatment.

Aim: The purpose of this study is to establish the incidence and type of malocclusions among mouth-breathing children with primary and mixed dentition.

Materials and Methods: A total of 412 children diagnosed with mouth breathing and 317 children diagnosed with habitual mouth breathing aged 3-12 years were examined. The dental occlusion of every child was assessed in the three planes of space - sagittal, transverse and horizontal in both segments - frontal and buccal.

Results: In both groups a statistically significant difference in dental malocclusions was demonstrated (p<0.001) depending on type of dentition. In both groups the vast majority of children were diagnosed with class II Angle malocclusion in both primary and mixed dentition. The children with primary dentition were more often diagnosed with class I Angle malocclusion.


In both groups the most frequent malocclusions present were class II Angle, overjet, bilateral posterior crossbite, open bite within 3 mm in the frontal segment. In primary dentition the most frequent type of malocclusion was class I Angle.


dental malocclusions, mouth breathing, habitual mouth breathing

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