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Foot and ankle - overview

D. Raykov, S. Dyankova


Introduction: Foot and ankle mobility is due to activity of agonist and antagonist muscle allowing the execution of complex movements like walking, running, jumping or standing up. Knowledge of functional anatomy is important for understanding signs and symptoms in clinical examination.Foot anatomy is complex and results in combination of body weight bearing and elastic function in ground contact.The following overview aims to present the main foot and ankle structures and the following functions that create human mobility. The presentation describes all bony, ligament and muscle structures - elements of the rear and forefoot, their insertions and functions; the important foot arches with the zones of ground contact; ankle mortice with its elements, their dimentions that are so important to maintain the Elftman spirale; complex contacts in subtalar and talocalcaneonavicular joints. The muscular activity of all powerfull muscles is presented, like mobility of plantar flexors gastrocnemius and soleus, dorsal flexors tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus and hallucis longus and all others, that stabilize ankle and create eversion and inversion.An analisys of the foot function is also presented - the contacts and combined activity between the 3 different parts - rear, mid and forefoot; importance of the toe motion - flexors and extensors, adductors and abductors.Conclusion: Detailed anatomical and functional knowledge of foot and ankle is of crutial importance for the correct diagnosis and treatment in patient complaints and disorders.



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About The Authors

D. Raykov

S. Dyankova

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