Scientific Online Resource System

Scripta Scientifica Medicinae Dentalis

A modified tongue coating index

Anna Nenova-Nogalcheva, Desislava Konstantinova, Kamen Nogalchev

Abstract

Tongue coating is an essential predictor of a number of systemic diseases of bed-ridden patients. Their gen­eral status puts limitations on the diagnostic facilities and calls for the use of an easily applicable tongue coating criteria/index. The authors’ objective was to propose a modified index for the extent of tongue coat­ing based on a conventional method study performed on bed-ridden chronic kidney disease (CKD) pa­tients and CKD patients undergoing regular renal treatment. The units of observation were 70 patients, aged 60±28.5 years. All patients underwent thorough extra- and intraoral examinations. Tongue coating was tested by two methods: using the Tongue Coating Index as per Kojima et al. (1985), and using the au­thors’ modified index. The data analysis showed that coating of varying degrees was observed in 100% of patients. The chi-square test of independence (incorporating Yates’s correction for continuity) revealed that there was not a statistically significant correlation between the extent of tongue coating and patients’ gen­der (χ2 (df=1, n=70) = 0.826, p=0.36), however, there was a dependency on patients’ age. The second set of tests based on the proposed index matched the results of the first examination using Kojima’s Index. The χ2 test of independence proved a strong statistically significant correlation between the two indices (χ2 (df=3, n=70)=44.877, p<0.01, Kendall’s coefficient (tau-b) = 0.714, Spearman’s coefficient = 0.772). Conclusion: The modified Tongue Coating Index is easily accessible and applicable in common dental practices.


Keywords

CKD, modified index, tongue coating

Full Text


References

Kho HS, Lee SW, Chung SC, Kim YK. Oral manifestations

and salivary flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity

in patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing

hemodialysis. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral

Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 1999, 88(3): 316-319. doi:

1016/S1079-2104(99)70035-1

Alamo SM, Esteve CG, Sarrión Pérez MG. Dental

considerations for the patient with renal

disease.

J Clin Exp Dent. 2011; 3(2): 112-9. doi: 10.4317/

jced.3.e112

Chi AC , Neville BW, Krayer JW, Gonsalves WC.

Oral manifestations of systemic disease. Am Fam

Physician. 2010 ;82(11):1381-8.

Wang X, Zhang D. A high quality color imaging

system for computerized tongue image analysis.

Expert Syst Appl. 2013; 40(15):5854–66. doi:

1016/j.eswa.2013.04.031

Kim J , Han GJ, Choi BH, Park JW, Park K. Yeo IK,

et al. Development of differential criteria on tongue

coating thickness in tongue diagnosis. Complement

Ther Med. 2012 ;20(5):316-22. doi: 10.1016/j.

ctim.2012.03.004

Kim J, Han G, Ko SJ , Nam DH, Park JW, Ryu B,

et al. Tongue diagnosis system for quantitative assessment

of tongue coating in patients with functional

dyspepsia: a clinical trial. J Ethnopharmacol.

;155(1):709-13. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2014.06.010

Kojima K. Clinical studies on the coated tongue.

Japanese J Oral Maxilofac Sur. 1985; 31(7): 1659-78.

doi: 10.5794/jjoms.31.1659




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14748/ssmd.v3i1.2210

Refbacks

About The Authors

Anna Nenova-Nogalcheva
Department of Oral Surgery, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Medical University – Varna, Bulgaria
Bulgaria

Department of Oral Surgery, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Medical University – Varna, Bulgaria

Desislava Konstantinova
Mu-Varna Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Medical University – Varna, Bulgaria
Bulgaria

Kamen Nogalchev
Mu-Varna Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Medical University – Varna, Bulgaria
Bulgaria

Font Size


|