Scientific Online Resource System

Scripta Scientifica Medicinae Dentalis

The impact of the thread design compared to the impact of the surface topography on the primary stability of implants inserted into fresh pig ribs

Elitsa Sabeva, Stefan Peev, Mariya Miteva, Milena Georgieva


The aim of this investigation was to compare the effect of the thread pitch, thread profile and the surface morphology on the primary stability of implants of a different diameter. Eighty test specimens of dental im­plants were inserted into 16 untreated pig ribs, as the maximum insertion torque (MIT), periotest values (PTV) and implant stability quotient (ISQ) were measured. Considering the results, we concluded that the higher thread profile, even with a wider thread pitch, affects the primary stability more than the rougher surface of the implants.


primary stability, dental implants, design

Full Text


Ivanoff CJ, Gröndahl K, Sennerby L, Bergström C, Lekholm U. Influence of variations in implant diameters: a 3- to 5-year retrospective clinical report. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 1999;14(2):173-180.

Ryu HS, Namgung C, Lee JH, Lim YJ. The influence of thread geometry on implant osseointegration under immediate loading: a literature review. J Adv Prosthodont. 2014;6(6):547-54. doi: 10.4047/ jap.2014.6.6.547

Orsini E, Giavaresi G, Trirè A, Ottani V, Salgarello S. Dental implant thread pitch and its influence on the osseointegration process: an in vivo comparison study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2012;27(2):383-92.

Lan TH, Du JK, Pan CY, Lee HE, Chung WH. Biomechanical analysis of alveolar bone stress around implants with different thread designs and pitches in the mandibular molar area. Clin Oral Investig. 2012;16(2):363-9. doi: 10.1007/s00784-011-0517-z

Kong L, Liu BL, Hu KJ, Li DH, Song YL, Ma P, et al. Optimized thread pitch design and stress analysis of the cylinder screwed dental implant. Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2006;24(6):509-12,515.

Misch CE, Strong T, Bidez MW. Scientific rationale for dental implant design. In: Misch CE, editor. Contemporary Implant Dentistry. 3rd ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2008. pp. 200-229.

Abuhussein H, Pagni G, Rebaudi A, Wang HL. The effect of thread pattern upon implant osseointegration. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2010;21(2):129-36. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2009.01800.x

Lee S-Y, Kim S-J, An H-W, et al. The effect of the thread depth on the mechanical properties of the dental implant. J Adv Prosthodont. 2015;7(2):115- 121. doi: 10.4047/jap.2015.7.2.115

Hicklin SP, Schneebeli E, Chappuis V, Janner SF, Buser D, Brägger U. Early loading of titanium dental implants with an intra-operatively conditioned hydrophilic implant surface after 21 days of healing. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2016 Jul;27(7):875-83. doi: 10.1111/clr.1270

Glibert M, De Bruyn H, Östman PO. Six-year radiographic, clinical, and soft tissue outcomes of immediately loaded, straight-walled, platform-switched, titanium-alloy implants with nanosurface topography. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2016;31(1):167-71. doi: 10.1111/clr.12706

Albertini M, Fernandez-Yague M, Lázaro P, et al. Advances in surfaces and osseointegration in implantology. Biomimetic surfaces. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2015;20(3):316-25. doi: 10.4317/ medoral.20353

Coelho PG, Granjeiro JM, Romanos GE, Suzuki M, Silva NR, Cardaropoli G, Thompson VP, Lemons JE. Basic research methods and current trends of dental implant surfaces. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2009;88(2):579-96. doi: 10.1002/ jbm.b.31264

Ribeiro AR, Oliveira F, Boldrini LC, Leite PE, Falagan-Lotsch P, Linhares AB, et al. Micro-arc oxidation as a tool to develop multifunctional calcium-rich surfaces for dental implant applications. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2015;54:196-206. doi: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.05.012

Wennerberg A, Jimbo R, Stübinger S, Obrecht M, Dard M, Berner S. Nanostructures and hydrophilicity influence osseointegration: a biomechanical study in the rabbit tibia. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2014;25(9):1041-50. doi: 10.1111/clr.12213

Wennerberg A, Albrektsson T. Effects of titanium surface topography on bone integration: a systematic review. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2009;20( Suppl 4):172-84. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2009.01775.x

Shon WJ, Chung SH, Kim HK, Han GJ, Cho BH, Park YS. Peri-implant bone formation of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma-treated zirconia implants with different surface roughness in rabbit tibiae. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2014;25(5):573-9. doi: 10.1111/clr.12115

Le Guéhennec L, Soueidan A, Layrolle P, Amouriq Y. Surface treatments of titanium dental implants for rapid osseointegration. Dent Mater. 2007;23(7):844-54. doi: 10.1016/

Sartoretto SC, Alves ATNN, Resende RFB, Calasans-Maia J, Granjeiro JM, Calasans-Maia MD. Early osseointegration driven by the surface chemistry and wettability of dental implants. J Appl Oral Sci. 2015;23(3):279-87. doi: 10.1590/1678-775720140483

Javed F, Ahmed HB, Crespi R, Romanos GE, Role of primary stability for successful osseointegration of dental implants: Factors of influence and evaluation. Interv Med Appl Sci. 2013;5(4):162-7. doi: 10.1556/IMAS.5.2013.4.3

Mazzo CR, Reis AC, Shimano AC, Valente ML. In vitro analysis of the influence of surface treatment of dental implants on primary stability. Braz Oral Res. 2012;26(4):313-7.

Duncan WJ, Gay JH, Lee MH, Bae TS, Lee SJ, Loch C. The effect of hydrothermal spark discharge anodization in the early integration of implants in sheep sinuses. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2016;27(8):975-80. doi: 10.1111/clr.12741

Dos Santos MV, Elias CN, Cavalcanti Lima JH. The effects of superficial roughness and design on the primary stability of dental implants. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2011;13(3):215-23. doi: 10.1111/j.1708-8208.2009.00202.x

Dagher M, Mokbel N, Jabbour G, Naaman N. Resonance frequency analysis, insertion torque, and bone to implant contact of 4 implant surfaces: comparison and correlation study in sheep. Implant Dent. 2014;23(6):672-8. doi: 10.1097/ ID.0000000000000155

Huwiler MA, Pjetursson BE, Bosshardt DD, Salvi GE, Lang NP,Resonance frequency analysis in relation to jawbone characteristics and during early healing of implant installation. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2007;18(3):275-80. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2007.01336.x

Skalak R, Zhao Y. Interaction of force-fitting and surface roughness of implants. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2000;2(4):219-24. doi: 10.1111/j.1708- 8208.2000.tb00120.x



About The Authors

Elitsa Sabeva
Medical University of Varna, Faculty of Dental Medicine

Department of Periodontology and Dental Implantology

Stefan Peev
Medical University of Varna, Faculty of Dental Medicine

Department of Periodontology and Dental Implantology

Mariya Miteva
Medical University of Varna, Faculty of Dental Medicine

Department of Periodontology and Dental Implantology

Milena Georgieva
Medical University of Varna, Faculty of Dental Medicine

Department of Pediatric Dentistry

Font Size