Scientific Online Resource System

Scripta Scientifica Pharmaceutica

The challenging paradigm of pharmaceutical care

Ivo Kumanov Kumanov


Pharmaceutical care is designed to aid medical professionals in ensuring optimal patient’s management. The necessity of elaboration and practical implementation of an appropriate philosophy of pharmaceutical practice and its organizational structures was suggested 25 years ago by Charles D. Hepler and Linda M. Strand. They defined the terms of ‘pharmaceutical care’ and ‘pharmaceutical-care system’. Pharmaceutical care provides drug therapy for achieving definite outcomes that improve a patient’s quality of life, namely: cure of a disease; reduction or elimination of symptoms; arresting or slowing of a disease process as well as preventing a disease or symptoms. There is strong evidence of the feasibility and effectiveness of a variety of interventions immediately associated with pharmaceutical care aiming at improving patients’ relationships with master pharmacists in the community and hospital pharmacies. The importance of interactive pharmacy students’ learning for enhancement of their pharmaceutical care competences is emphasized. Hospital pharmacists recommend a broader practical implementation of pharmaceutical care while appreciating the organizational, technical and professional barriers in this respect. Collaborative efforts between health authorities and educational institutions along with the integration of innovative approaches in the management of public and hospital pharmacies and pharmacy education could contribute to overcome these barriers.


pharmaceutical care paradigm; pharmacists; higher education; patients; attitudes; barriers

Full Text


Manasse HR Jr. Medication use in an imperfect world: drug misadventuring as an issue of public policy, Part 1. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1989;46(5):929-44.

Manasse HR Jr. Medication use in an imperfect world: drug misadventuring as an issue of public policy, Part 2. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1989a;46(6):1141-52.

Hepler CD, Strand LM. Opportunities and responsibilities in pharmaceutical care. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1990;47(3):533-43.

Hepler CD. Unresolved issues in the future of pharmacy. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1988;45(5):1071-81.

Arranz Alvarez L. Pharmaceutic care: paradigm of health for all in the year 2000? Rev Sanid Hig Publica (Madr). 1990;64(1-2):9-15. Spanish.

Penna RP. Pharmaceutical care: pharmacy's mission for the 1990s. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1990;47(3):543-9.

Hepler CD. The future of pharmacy: pharmaceutical care. Am Pharm. 1990;NS30(10):23-9.

Hepler CD, Strand LM, Tromp D, Sakolchai S. Critically examining pharmaceutical care. J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash). 2002;42(5 Suppl 1):S18-9.

Galinsky RE, Nickman NA. Pharmacists and the mandate of pharmaceutical care. DICP. 1991;25(4):431-4.

Awalom MT, Tesfa AF, Kidane ME, Ghebremedhin MR, Teklesenbet AH. Eritrean pharmacists’ job satisfaction and their attitude to re-professionalize pharmacy in to pharmaceutical care. Int J Clin Pharm. 2015;37(2):335-41.

Katoue MG, Awad AI, Schwinghammer TL, Kombian SB. Pharmaceutical care in Kuwait: hospital pharmacists’ perspectives. Int J Clin Pharm. 2014;36(6):1170-8.

Helling DK, Johnson SG. Defining and advancing ambulatory care pharmacy practice: it is time to lengthen our stride. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2014;71(16):1348-56.

Tommelein E, Tollenaere K, Mehuys E, Boussery K. Pharmaceutical care for patients with COPD in Belgium and views on protocol implementation. Int J Clin Pharm. 2014;36(4):697-701.

Zhu L, Fox A, Chan YC. Enhancing collaborative pharmaceutical care for patients with chronic kidney disease: survey of community pharmacists. Can J Hosp Pharm. 2014;67(4):268-73.

Prot-Labarthe S, Lavoie A, Bourdon O, Lebel D, Bussières JF, Faye A, et al. Étude pilote sur la mise en place des soins pharmaceutiques dans le service de pédiatrie générale d’un hôpital français. Collaboration et comparaison franco-québécoise. Arch Pediatr. 2007;14(4):345-53.

Kuhmmer R, Lima KM, Ribeiro RA, Hammes LS, Bastos GA, Cotta de Souza MC, et al. Effectiveness of pharmaceutical care at discharge in the emergency department: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2015;16: 60. doi: 10.1186/s13063-015-0579-3.

Farley TM, Shelsky C, Powell S, Farris KB, Carter BL. Effect of clinical pharmacist intervention on medication discrepancies following hospital discharge. Int J Clin Pharm. 2014;36(2):430-7.

Geurts MM, Zuydgeest IA, Walser S, Kijlstra NB, Petkova V, de Gier JJ. The evaluation of patient self-completion concordance forms used in community pharmacy: a comparison of two European countries. Int J Pharm Pract. 2014;22(3):186-92.

Losada-Camacho M, Guerrero-Pabon MF, Garcia-Delgado P, Martínez-Martinez F. Impact of a pharmaceutical care programme on health-related quality of life among women with epilepsy: a randomised controlled trial (IPHIWWE study). Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2014;12: 162. doi: 10.1186/s12955-014-0162-8.

Joost R, Dörje F, Schwitulla J, Eckardt KU, Hugo C. Intensified pharmaceutical care is improving immunosuppressive medication adherence in kidney transplant recipients during the first post-transplant year: a quasi-experimental study. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2014;29(8):1597-607.

Wei L, Yang X, Li J, Liu L, Luo H, Zheng Z, Wei Y. Effect of pharmaceutical care on medication adherence and hospital admission in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): a randomized controlled study. J Thorac Dis. 2014;6(6):656-62.

Farris KB, Carter BL, Xu Y, Dawson JD, Shelsky C, Weetman DB, et al. Effect of a care transition intervention by pharmacists: an RCT. BMC Health Serv Res. 201418;14: 406. doi: 10.1186/1472-6963-14-406.

Mesquita AR, Souza WM, Boaventura TC, Barros IM, Antoniolli AR, Silva WB, et al. The effect of active learning methodologies on the teaching of pharmaceutical care in a Brazilian pharmacy faculty. PLoS One. 2015;10(5):e0123141.

Katoue MG, Awad AI, Schwinghammer TL, Kombian SB. Pharmaceutical care education in Kuwait: pharmacy students’ perspectives. Pharm Pract (Granada). 2014;12(3):411.

Perraudin C, Brion F, Bourdon O, Pelletier-Fleury N. The future of pharmaceutical care in France: a survey of final-year pharmacy students’ opinions. BMC Clin Pharmacol. 2011;11: 6. doi: 10.1186/1472-6904-11-6.

Naydenov T, Pavlov D, Ivanova D, Kerekovska A, Getov I. Relevance of pharmaceutical higher education to the labor market: a study of pharmacists’ attitudes. Scripta Scientifica Pharmaceutica. 2014;1(2):7-17.



Article Tools
Email this article (Login required)
About The Author

Ivo Kumanov Kumanov
Medical university of Varna

Pharmacy Faculty,

Department of Pharmacy science and Pharmacy management

Font Size