Scientific Online Resource System

Scripta Scientifica Pharmaceutica


Kamalita Pertiwi, Dieuwertje Kok, Johanna Marianne


Linoleic acid (LA) is a major polyunsaturated fatty acid in western diets. Circulating LA levels have been used as a biomarker of LA intake in diet-outcome studies, especially in recent studies of type 2 diabetes. Different plasma fractions for the assessment of circulating LA levels are available. Whether ranking of individuals based on their LA intake depends on the plasma fraction used is currently unknown. In the present study we classified Dutch cardiac patients from the Alpha Omega Cohort based on habitual LA intake. Patients filled in a 203-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) which was linked to the Dutch food composition table (NEVO 2006) to estimated daily LA intake (energy percentage, en%). Non-fasting blood samples were collected in which LA and other circulating fatty acids were determined in plasma cholesterol esters (CE; n=4746) and in phospholipids (PL; n=1019) by means of gas chromatography. LA in CE and PL were expressed relative to total fatty acid composition (weight percentage, wt%). Fatty acids were also assessed in total plasma using nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics (NMR; n=873) (molar percentage, mol%). Patients with an intake of <4 en%, 4-8 en%, and >8 en% from LA showed corresponding plasma levels of LA, especially when measured using CE and NMR. Meanwhile, when patients were classified into quintiles of intake, only plasma levels of patients in the lowest and highest quintiles of intake differed from each other. Plasma CE agreed better with NMR than with PL. To conclude, plasma levels showed good correspondence to intake. Within our cohort, evaluation of LA as a biomarker of intake will be further explored in relation to disease outcomes.

Acknowledgement: VLAG-NWO graduate programme


linoleic acid, polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary intake, blood, biomarker



Article Tools
Email this article (Login required)
About The Authors

Kamalita Pertiwi

Dieuwertje Kok

Johanna Marianne

Font Size