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Oral Manifestation of Systemic Diseases

Vasil Yordanov, Miglena Balcheva, Siyana Gradanska, Maria Dzhinova


Introduction: The oral cavity, apart from being the beginning of the gastrointestinal tract and playing a role in the speech, can also be a basis for symptoms, connected with systemic diseases. The most serious problems concerning dental professionals include caries, oral ulcers, mucosal erythema, gingival bleeding and hypertrophy, soft tissue exophytic masses, dry mouth, facial pain, movement disorders, tooth abnormalities, abnormal dental wear, tooth/mucosal discoloration, developmental and bone pathology.

Materials and Methods: Oral manifestations of systemic diseases can be evaluated through a variety of methods. Careful examination of the oral cavity is still the most important procedure. It may reveal mucosal changes, periodontal inflammation and bleeding, and the general condition of the teeth. Biopsy is an obligatory method for diagnosing cancer and precancerous lesions. Even then, there is a possibility for a mistake. The function of oral organs is assessed as a malfunction may indicate an unnoticed until now health problem. Pain symptoms should never be underestimated.

Results: Dental specialists should have in mind that even the smallest irregularity may be connected to an undiagnosed systemic disease. Oral ulceration may be found in patients with lupus erythematosus, pemphigus vulgaris, or Crohn’s disease. Severe periodontal inflammation or bleeding should prompt investigation of conditions such as diabetes mellitus, human immunodeficiency virus infection, thrombocytopenia, and leukemia. An understanding of the relationship between systemic disease and oral pathology is important with respect to establishing the diagnosis and determining the complexity of the following treatment.
Conclusion: Careful examination of the oral cavity may reveal findings indicative of an underlying systemic condition, and allow for early diagnosis and treatment. All fields of medicine should work together in the best interest of patients. 


systemic disease, oral manifestation


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