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Classification of gingival recessions - a review

Irena Georgieva


Gingival recession is a mucogingival condition, associated with retraction of marginal gingival tissues apically to CEJ of the tooth, that leads to an aesthetic defect, often a consequence of periodontal disease or mechanical trauma.

Classification of gingival recessions is an important factor for correct understanding and determining of diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment planning for root coverage of the exposed root surface.

For decades different classification systems of different authors have been presented (Sullivan & Atkins, Mlinek, Benque. Miller, Smith, Mahajan, Cairo, etc.). They were based on the morphology of the lesions, their etiology, prognosis or the possibilities for root coverage. Miller's classification is one of the most widely used gingival classifications in practice but it has some drawbacks.


gingival recessions; classification; prognosis; mucogingival junction; clinical attachment loss

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