Scientific Online Resource System

Varna Medical Forum

Zoonotic Paramyxoviruses. Genus Henipavirus

Slavomir Marinkashki, Dimitar Dimitrov, Tsvetelina Kostadinova


Over the last two decades, data has been accumulated for zoonotic paramyxoviruses, also affecting human pathology. Of greatest importance are the two species of genus Henipavirus of family Paramyxoviridae – Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV), that cause severe and lethal infections in humans and animals, for which they have been classified as class C bioterrorism agents by the CDC. Our goal is to research and study scientific medical publications on epidemiology and the medico-social significance of these two little known viruses. To achieve this, we used the documentary method by studying full-text scientific publications.
Both the Hendra and Nipah viruses have a restricted range of distribution and are mainly found in animals, most often in fruit bats (flying foxes, megabats), pigs and horses. In the period from 1994 to 2009 only seven cases of human Hendra virus infection have been documented, while the Nipah virus has a more prominent virulence towards humans and has caused numerous cases and almost annual epidemics in Malaysia and India. The knowledge and public awareness of newly emergent viral infections is important for their control and the creation of effective measures for the prevention of their spread.


zoonosis, Hendra virus, Nipah virus

Full Text


Chadha MS, Comer JA, Lowe L, Rota PA, Rollin PE, Bellini WJ, Ksiazek TG, Mishra A. 2006. Nipah virus- associated encephalitis outbreak, Siliguri, India. Emerg Infect Dis 12:235–240.

Chua KB, Bellini WJ, Rota PA, Harcourt BH, Tamin A, Lam SK, Ksiazek TG, Rollin PE, Zaki SR, Shieh W, Goldsmith CS, Gubler DJ, Roehrig JT, Eaton B, Gould AR, Olson J, Field H, Daniels P, Ling AE, Peters CJ, Anderson 960 - THE AGENTS—PART B: RNA VIRUSES LJ, Mahy BW. 2000. Nipah virus: a recently emergent deadly paramyxovirus. Science 288:1432–1435.

Halpin K, Hyatt AD, Plowright RK, Epstein JH, Daszak P, Field HE, Wang L, Daniels PW, Henipavirus Ecology Research Group. 2007. Emerging viruses: coming in on a wrinkled wing and a prayer. Clin Infect Dis 44:711- 717.

Halpin K, Mungall BA. 2007. Recent progress in henipavirus research. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 30:287–307

Eaton BT, Broder CC, Middleton D, Wang LF. 2006. Hendra and Nipah viruses: different and dangerous. Nat Rev Microbiol 4:23–35

Wang L-F, Mackenzie JS, Broder CC. 2013. Henipaviruses, p 1070–1085. In Knipe DM, et al (ed), Fields Virology. 1, 6th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA

Murray K, Selleck P, Hooper P, Hyatt A, Gould A, Gleeson L, Westbury H, Hiley L, Selvey L, Rodwell B, Ketterer P. 1995. A morbillivirus that caused fatal disease in horses and humans. Science 268:94–97

Halpin K, Bankamp B, Harcourt BH, Bellini WJ, Rota PA. 2004. Nipah virus conforms to the rule of six in a minigenome replication assay. J Gen Virol 85:701–707.

Bonaparte MI, Dimitrov AS, Bossart KN, Crameri G, Mungall BA, Bishop KA, Choudhry V, Dimitrov DS, Wang LF, Eaton BT, Broder CC. 2005. Ephrin-B2 ligand is a 962 - THE AGENTS—PART B: RNA VIRUSES functional receptor for Hendra virus and Nipah virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:10652–10657.

Negrete OA, Chu D, Aguilar HC, Lee B. 2007. Single amino acid changes in the Nipah and Hendra virus attachment glycoproteins distinguish ephrinB2 from ephrinB3 usage. J Virol 81:10804–10814.

Benjamin A. Satterfield, Brian E. Dawes, Gregg N. Milligan. 2016. Status of vaccine research and development of vaccines for Nipah virus.

Murray K, Rogers R, Selvey L, Selleck P, Hyatt A, Gould A, Gleeson L, Hooper P, Westbury H. 1995. A novel morbillivirus pneumonia of horses and its transmission to humans. Emerg Infect Dis 1:31–33.

O’Sullivan JD, Allworth AM, Paterson DL, Snow TM, Boots R, Gleeson LJ, Gould AR, Hyatt AD, Bradfield J. 1997. Fatal encephalitis due to novel paramyxovirus transmitted from horses. Lancet 349:93–95.

Hooper PT, Gould AR, Russell GM, Kattenbelt JA, Mitchell G. 1996. The retrospective diagnosis of a second outbreak of equine morbillivirus infection. Aust Vet J 74:244–245

McCormack JG, Allworth AM, Selvey LA, Selleck PW. 1999. Transmissibility from horses to humans of a novel paramyxovirus, equine morbillivirus (EMV). J Infect 38: 22–23.

Williamson MM, Hooper PT, Selleck PW, Gleeson LJ, Daniels PW, Westbury HA, Murray PK. 1998. Transmission studies of Hendra virus (equine morbillivirus) in fruit bats, horses and cats. Aust Vet J 76:813–818.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 1999. Outbreak of Hendra-like virus—Malaysia and Singapore, 1998–1999. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 48:265–269.

Clayton BA, Wang LF, Marsh GA. 2013. Henipaviruses: an updated review focusing on the pteropid reservoir and features of transmission. Zoonoses Public Health 60:69–83.

Luby SP, Gurley ES, Hossain MJ. 2009. Transmission of human infection with Nipah virus. Clin Infect Dis 49:1743–1748.

Hooper PT, Williamson MM. 2000. Hendra and Nipah virus infections. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 16:597–603, xi. Xi

Rahman MA, Hossain MJ, Sultana S, Homaira N, Khan SU, Rahman M, Gurley ES, Rollin PE, Lo MK, Comer JA, Lowe L, Rota PA, Ksiazek TG, Kenah E, Sharker Y, Luby SP. 2012. Date palm sap linked to Nipah virus outbreak in Bangladesh, 2008. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 12:65– 72

Goh KJ, Tan CT, Chew NK, Tan PS, Kamarulzaman A, Sarji SA, Wong KT, Abdullah BJ, Chua KB, Lam SK. 2000. Clinical features of Nipah virus encephalitis among pig farmers in Malaysia. N Engl J Med 342:1229–1235.

Parashar UD, Sunn LM, Ong F, Mounts AW, Arif MT, Ksiazek TG, Kamaluddin MA, Mustafa AN, Kaur H, Ding LM, Othman G, Radzi HM, Kitsutani PT, Stockton PC, Arokiasamy J, Gary HE Jr, Anderson LJ. 2000. Case- control study of risk factors for human infection with a new zoonotic paramyxovirus, Nipah virus, during a 1998–1999 outbreak of

severe encephalitis in Malaysia. J Infect Dis 181:1755– 1759.

Sarji SA, Abdullah BJ, Goh KJ, Tan CT, Wong KT. 2000. MR imaging features of Nipah encephalitis. AJR Am J Roentgenol 175:437–442.

Chua KB, Lam SK, Tan CT, Hooi PS, Goh KJ, Chew NK, Tan KS, Kamarulzaman A, Wong KT. 2000. High mortality in Nipah encephalitis is associated with presence of virus in cerebrospinal fluid. Ann Neurol 48:802–805.

Paton NI, Leo YS, Zaki SR, Auchus AP, Lee KE, Ling AE, Chew SK, Ang B, Rollin PE,

Umapathi T, Sng I, Lee CC, Lim E, Ksiazek TG. 1999. Outbreak of Nipah-virus infection among abattoir workers in Singapore. Lancet 354:1253–1256.

Sejvar JJ, Hossain J, Saha SK, Gurley ES, Banu S, Hamadani JD, Faiz MA, Siddiqui FM, Mohammad QD, Mollah AH, Uddin R, Alam R, Rahman R, Tan CT, Bellini W, Rota P, Breiman RF, Luby SP. 2007. Long-term neurological and functional outcome in Nipah virus infection. Ann Neurol 62:235–242.

G. Arunkumar, R. Chandni, D. T. Mourya, S. K. Singh, R. Sadanandan, P. Sudan, B. Bhargava, Nipah Investigators People and Health Study Group, Outbreak investigation of Nipah virus disease in Kerala, India, 2018. J. Infect. Dis. 2018, jiy612

Lo, M. K., Feldmann, F., Gary, J. M., Jordan, R., Bannister, R., Cronin, Nishi R. Patel, John D. Klena , Stuart T. Nichol , Tomas Cihlar, Sherif R. Zaki, Heinz Feldmann, Christina F. Spiropoulou, Emmie de Wit. 2019. Remdesivir (GS-5734) protects African green monkeys from Nipah virus challenge. Science Translational Medicine, 11(494), eaau924


Font Size