Scientific Online Resource System

Varna Medical Forum

Bacterial skin infections in childhood

Jenya Stoyanova, Ilko Bakardzhiev


Bacterial skin infections are among the most common clinical conditions found in pediatric dermatological practice. Bacterial diseases of the skin - pyoderma - are all inflammatory processes caused by bacteria (staphylococci, streptococci, corynebacteria, propionibacteria, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, proteus, etc.). Actually, these are diseases caused by purulent bacteria - pyococci - mostly staphylococci and streptococci. Bacterial infections of the skin and skin structures, commonly found in children, include impetigo, ecthyma, folliculitis, furuncles, carbuncles, inflammation of epidermal appendages, streptococcal perianal dermatitis and others. Skin infections are primary and secondary, depending on the mode of action. Pyoderma can be acute, subacute, recurrent, and with obvious clinical signs of inflammation. Another division of skin bacterial infections defines them as uncomplicated (superficial) and complicated (deep). Various factors, such as poverty, malnutrition, poor hygiene, lower socio-economic status, climate change, immunocompromised conditions, comorbidity, and increasing resistance to pathogens, are the cause of increased incidence of bacterial skin infections.


bacterial skin infections in childhood, pyoderma, skin lesions, impetigo, staphylococci, streptococci

Full Text


Марина С., Г. Киров. Еризипел. С., 1992.

Митева Л. Съвременни проблеми в педиатричната дерматология ( Част I). Наука Фармакология 2010, 1, 34-36.

Singh Th N, Singh Th N, Devi Kh S, Singh Ng B. Bacteriological study of pyoderma in RIMS hospital. JMS - Journal of Medical Society. 2005;19:109–12.

Hayden GF, Skin diseases encountered in a pediatric clinic. A one-year prospective study. Am J Dis Child. 1985 Jan; 139(1):36-8.

Roberts SO, Highet AS. Bacterial Infections: Textbook of Dermatology. 5th ed. Blackwell: Oxford University Press; 1996. pp. 725–90.

Edelsberg J, Taneja C, Zervos M, et al. Trends in US hospital admissions for skin and soft tissue infections. Emerg Infect Dis 2009; 15:1516–8.

Pallin DJ, Espinola JA, Leung DY, Hooper DC, Camargo CA Jr. Epidemiology of dermatitis and skin infections in United States physicians’ offices, 1993–2005. Clin Infect Dis 2009; 49:901–7.

Wertheim HF, Melles DC, Vos MC, van Leeuwen W, van Belkum A, Verbrugh HA, Nouwen JL Lancet Infect Dis. 2005 Dec; 5(12):751-62.

Fridkin SK, Hageman JC, Morrison M et ll. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Program of the Emerging Infectious Program Network. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus disease in three communities. N Eng J Med. 2005.352(14), 1436-1444.

Styers D, Sheehan DJ, Hogan P et al. Laboratory-based surveillance of current antimicrobial resistance patterns and trends among S.aureus: 2005 status in USA. Ann Clin Microbiol. Antimicrob. 2006. 5, 2.

Tillotson GS, Draghi DC, Sahm DF et al. Susceptibility of S.aureus isolated from skin and wound infections in the USA 2005-2007: laboratory-based surveillance study. J. Antimicrob. Chemoter. 2008. 62, 109-115

Shallcross LJ, Petersen I, Rosenthal J et al. Use of primary care data for detecting impetigo trends, United Kingdom, 1995–2010. Emerg Infect Dis 2013; 19:1646–8.

Skull SA, Krause V, Coombs G et al. Investigation of a cluster of Staphylococcus aureusinvasive infection in the top end of the Northern Territory. Aust N Z J Med 1999; 29:66–72.

Brischetto A, Leung G, Marshall CS et al. A retrospective case-series of children with bone and joint infection from Northern Australia. Medicine (Baltimore) 2016; 95:e2885.

Amagai M, Yamaguchi T, Hanakawa Y, Nishifuji K, Sugai M, Stanley JR. Staphylococcal exfoliative toxin B specifically cleaves desmoglein 1. J Invest Dermatol. 2002 May. 118(5):845-50.

Hanakawa Y, Stanley JR. Mechanisms of blister formation by staphylococcal toxins. J Biochem. 2004 Dec. 136(6):747-50.

Ladhani S. Understanding the mechanism of action of the exfoliative toxins of Staphylococcus aureus. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2003 Nov 28. 39(2):181-9.

Moss C, Gupta E. The Nikolsky sign in staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome. Arch Dis Child. 1998 Sep. 79(3):290.

Uzun S, Durdu M. The specificity and sensitivity of Nikolskiy sign in the diagnosis of pemphigus. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006 Mar. 54(3):411-5.

Kearns T, Evans C, Krause V. Outbreak of acute post streptococcal glomerulonephritis in the Northern Territory - 2000. NT Communicable Diseases Bulletin 2001; 8:6–14.

Kelly C et all. Streptococcal Ecthyma. Treatment with Benzathine Penicillin G. 1971 Mar. 103(3): 306-10

Wasserzug O et all, A cluster of ecthyma outbreaks, caused by a single clone of invasive and highly infective Streptococcus pyogenes. 2009 May 1. 48(9):1213-9.

Bonnetblanc JM et al. Erysipelas: recognition and management. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2003. 4(3):157-63.

Kokx NP et al. Streptococcal perianal disease in children. Pediatrics. Nov 1987. 80(5): 659-63.

Lio PA, Kaye ET. Topical antibacterial agents. Infect Dis Clin North Am, 2004, vol. 18.717-33.

Gelmetti C. Local antibiotics in dermatology. Dermatol Ther. 2008 May-Jun. 21(3):187-95.

Antonov NК, Garzon MC, Morel KD et al. High prevalence of mupirocin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from a pediatric population. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015. 59:3350–3356.10.1128/AAC.00079-15.

Treating impetigo in primary care. Drug Ther Bull. 2007 Jan. 45(1):2-4.

Oranje AP, Chosidow O, Sacchidanand S, et al. Topical retapamulin ointment, 1%, versus sodium fusidate ointment, 2%, for impetigo: a randomized, observer-blinded, noninferiority study. Dermatology. 2007. 215(4):331-40.

Denton M, O'Connell B, Bernard P, Jarlier V, Williams Z, Henriksen AS. The EPISA study: antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus causing primary or secondary skin and soft tissue infections in the community in France, the UK and Ireland. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008 Mar. 61(3):586-8.

O'Neill AJ, Larsen AR, Skov R, Henriksen AS, Chopra I. Characterization of the epidemic European fusidic acid-resistant impetigo clone of Staphylococcus aureus. J Clin Microbiol. 2007 May. 45(5):1505-10.

Laurent F, Tristan A, Croze M, et al. Presence of the epidemic European fusidic acid-resistant impetigo clone (EEFIC) of Staphylococcus aureus in France. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2009 Feb. 63(2):420-1; author reply 421.

Marks, J., Elsner, P., DeLeo V. Contact & occupational dermatology. St. Louis, (2002MO: Mosby).

(Guideline) Stevens DL et all. Practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of skin and soft tissue infections: 2014update by the infectious desease society of America. 2014 Jul15. 59(2):10-52

Bernard P. Management of common bacterial infections of the skin. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2008 Apr.21 (2):122-8.


Font Size