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Genome-wide profiling of copy number alterations in cancer: focus on melanoma

Luigi Pasini

Abstract

Thanks to a never-before detailed view of the human genome, the last decade has brought to light the notion of DNA copy number variation (CNV) as the pivotal force contributing to population genomic diversity and evolution. It is as well clear now that cancer typically results in loosened control over genomic integrity and that the acquisition of somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs), whether confined to specific genes or affecting entire chromosome arms, is likely to be a fundamental prerequisite to the adaptive pressure that drives oncogenesis. This review gives a brief overview of key developments in genome-wide SCNA profiling, with specific emphasis on array-based techniques and deep-sequencing, which indeed enabled us to identify the large majority of genomic regions undergoing frequent alteration in human cancers and defining recognizable clinical phenotype. Alongside with the prospective to take advantage for future personalized precision medicine, high-throughput SCNA analysis have already proven diagnostic and prognostic potential, particularly for those clinically unpredictable and therapy-refractory tumors, such us cutaneous melanoma.

Biomedical Reviews 2013; 24: 11-24.


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14748/bmr.v24.18

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About The Author

Luigi Pasini
University of Trento
Italy

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