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Bulgarian Review of Ophthalmology

Refraction dynamics in children up to age 3

A. Simeonova, V. Chernodrinska, G. Alexieva


Introduction: The state of refraction in young children is important to be examined with regard to preventing various eye diseases (amblyopia, strabismus, hordeolosis, blepharitis etc.). There is enough literature data about the dynamic changes of the spherical refraction during childhood. Regarding the dynamics of the aspheric refraction the information is much more poor. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine and follow-up refraction in children up to age 3. Material and methods: The study covers 324 children (648 eyes) aged between 6 and 12 months at their first visit and refraction examination. 159 of them are girls (318 eyes) and 165- boys (330 eyes) .The children are grouped in four age groups and are divided by gender. They are followed up one to three times later. The methods used are: photoautorefractometry with PlusoptiX S04; cycloplegia, retinoscopy and optical correction if needed; statistics. Results: 1. Hypermetropic refraction remains the most prevalent among the studied children; 2. Myopia is a rare eye condition in children up to age 3; 3. Astigmatism changes with age (towards reducing); 4. Diopters of astigmatism are most decreased in age between 12 and 18 months; 5. There is no statistically significant difference in refraction between genders. Conclusions: The PlusoptiX S04 photoautorefractometer is operational for children aged at least 6 months. This method can be used to define and follow-up the refraction dynamics in children in the course of the diagnostics and the treatment process. It allows us to state that astigmatism reduces with age.


refraction dynamics in children; hyperopia; myopia; astigmatism

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About The Authors

A. Simeonova
Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital `Alexandrovska` - Medical Faculty, Sofia

V. Chernodrinska
Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital `Alexandrovska` - Medical Faculty, Sofia

G. Alexieva
Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital `Alexandrovska` - Medical Faculty, Sofia