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Bulgarian Review of Ophthalmology

Risk Factors for the Development of Uveitis

S. Nikolaeva, B. Nencheva


Uveitis is one of the main causes of eye disease and blindness. Worldwide, uveitis is associated with 5 to 10% of visual impairments, with 35% of patients diagnosed with the disease having significant vision loss and some reaching complete blindness. Uveitis is a common, eye-threatening inflammatory eye disease and involves a number of heterogeneous clinical formations. The prevalence of different types of uveitis depends on many factors, such as age, sex, race, geographical distribution, environmental influences, genetics and social habits. The aim is to present the risk factors for the development of uveitis based on the literature review. Material and methods: An extensive study of scientific articles was conducted in the PubMed, ScienceDirect and Scopus databases, using the following keywords: uveitis, epidemiology, frequency, risk factors, prevalence. Based on the obtained results, a synthesized review of the risk factors and the prevalence of uveitis was made. Most studies related to uveitis have been conducted in developed countries. In these studies, the incidence was between 17 and 52 per 100,000 people per year, and the prevalence was 38-714 cases per 100,000 population. Up to 25% of cases of blindness in developing countries are associated with uveitis. When diagnosing the type of uveitis, it is necessary to take into account the location, onset of the disease, duration and clinical course. Conclusion: Knowledge of regional patterns and risk factors for the disease is essential. The more detailed classification of uveitis with the establishment of uniform diagnostic criteria and prospective population-based studies have a significant impact on epidemiological studies and clinical practice.


uveitis, risk factors, frequency, classification

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About The Authors

S. Nikolaeva
Medical University of Varna

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences

B. Nencheva
Medical University of Varna

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences