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Bulgarian Review of Ophthalmology

Guidelines for the Management of Diabetic Macular Edema by the European Society of Retina Specialists (EURETINA)

Ursula Schmidt-Erfurth, Jose Garcia-Arumi, Francesco Bandello, Karina Berg, Usha Chakravarthy, Bianca S. Gerendas, Jost Jonas, Michael Larsen, Ramin Tadayoni, Anat Loewenstein


The prevalence of diabetic macular edema (DME) is continuously rising worldwide and has become one of the major causes of vision loss in the working-age population. Clinical parameters and new diagnostic parameters from imaging with optical coherence tomography (OCT) as well as the overall advances of OCT technology have been identified to stage the disease. However, a large variety of therapeutic strategies are available to the ophthal mologist: laser photocoagulation, antivascular endothe lial growth factor (VEGF), steroid and surgical therapy are applied with different procedures and their own complications. A novel era of DME therapy has started with these diverse approaches. These guidelines shall give an overview on the current available diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and recommend their application.

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About The Authors

Ursula Schmidt-Erfurth
Medical University of Vienna

Department of Ophthalmology and Optometry

Jose Garcia-Arumi
Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona

Ophthalmology Department

Francesco Bandello
Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan

Department of Ophthalmology

Karina Berg
Oslo University Hospital

Department of Ophthalmology

Usha Chakravarthy
The Queen’s University of Belfast
United Kingdom

School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Biomedical Sciences

Bianca S. Gerendas
Medical University of Vienna

Department of Ophthalmology and Optometry

Jost Jonas
Ruprecht-Karls University Heidelberg, Mannheim

Department of Ophthalmology, Medical Faculty

Michael Larsen
University of Copenhagen

Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences

Ramin Tadayoni
Université Paris 7 – Sorbonne Paris Cité

Department of Ophthalmology, Hôpital Lariboisière

Anat Loewenstein
Tel Aviv University

Department of Ophthalmology, Tel Aviv Medical Center