Scientific Online Resource System

Izvestia Journal of the Union of Scientists - Varna. Medicine and Ecology Series

Maxilo-facial and occlusal characteristic in mouth breathing children

Z. Valcheva, H. Arnautska, G. Ivanova, I. Atanasova, S. Yaneva


Introduction: Breathing through the mouth and nose supplies oxygen to the lungs. Human beans breath through the nose, but they can be forced to breathe through the mouth because of different reasons. Nose breathing provides normal development of the maxillo-facial structures. Changing the pattern of breathing results in alteration of lower jaw, tongue and head positon. Aim: The aim of this study is to establish the role of mouth breathing in school-age children and the development of mallocclusion and skeletal growth pattern. Materials and methods: Diagnostic records were obtained from 74 children aged 7 to 17 years and also clinically evaluated. The patients were divided into two groups: the first group included 37 mouth breathing children (MB), and the second group - 37 nose breathing children (NB). Study cast analysis and cephalometric analysis were made of all patients. Results: A significant difference was established between mouth and nose breathing children with aid of the intermolar distance measurement method in the upper jaw. Intermolar distance is significantly lower than mean value for NB children. The MB children demonstrate retruded position of the mandible (SNB). No significant difference was found at the SNA angle degree between the both groups. MB children seem to have an increase anterior lower facial height. Conclusion: MB children demonstrate more severe compression of the upper jaw. There is more often a distal occlusion, narrower upper pharyngeal width, reduced nasopharyngeal space, and increased lower facial height.


mouth breathing children, occlusion, cephalometrics

Full Text


Arathi Rao, Principle and Practice of Pedodontics. 3rd edition. New Delhi. 2012, p.169, 170.

Bishara SE, (editor). Textbook of Orthodontics. Philadelphia, W B Saunders Co. 2001. p. 606.

Brodie, A. G.: Muscular factors in the diagnosis and treatment of malocclusion. Angle Ortho. 23:71-77, 1953

Gill DS, Naini FB. Orthodontics: Principles and Practice. Wiley-Blackwell. 2011. p. 281.

Joshi, M.R.:Study of dental occlusion in nasal and pro-nasal breathers in Maharashtrian children, J. All India D.A. 36: 219-239,247-249, 1964

Kerr WJ et al Mandibular forma and position related to changed mode of breathing - a five-year longitudinal study. Angle Orthod 1989, 59(2): 91-96

McNamara JA ,Influence of respiratory pattern on craniofacial growth., Angle Orthod. 1981 Oct; 51(4):269-300

Munoz, P.Orta , Comparison of cephalometric patterns in mouth breathing and nose breathing children, IJPO78 , 2014, 1167-1172

Rao J, QRS for BDS 4th Year. Pedodontics. Elsevier India. 2014. p. 164.

Souki BQ, Pimenta GB, Souki M, Franco LP, Becker HM, Pinto JA, Prevalence of malocclusion among mouth breathing children: do expectations meet reality? Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2009 May; 73(5):767-73

Wagner C. Habitual mouth-breathing: its causes, effects, and treatment. New York: G.P. Putnam`s Sons. 1881. p. 10-11



Font Size