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Izvestia Journal of the Union of Scientists - Varna. Medicine and Ecology Series

The role of vitamin K in human health

Rositsa Chamova, Maria Panteleeva, Eliyana Ivanova


Introduction: Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin. It exists in the form of three compounds with similar structures and functions. Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone, phytomenadione) is the most common active form in nature and is found in plants. Vitamin K2 (menaquinone), which has about 75% of the potential of K1, is synthesized by bacteria in the human intestinal tract. Vitamin K3 (menadione) is a water-soluble synthetic compound that can be converted to K2 in the intestinal tract.

Aim: The purpose of this review is to discuss the role of Vitamin K in human health.

Materials and Methods: An analysis of publications available in PubMed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, Medline scientific databases was conducted. The keywords used were vitamin K, menaquinone, phylloquinone, physiological effects of vitamin K.

Results: Vitamin K’s best known function is its participation in the synthesis of coagulation factors in the liver. Vitamin K affects the osteoblast proliferation and differentiation as well as the calcium deposition in the blood vessels. The vitamin’s essential role in the synthesis of sphingolipids in the brain determines its importance for the central and peripheral nervous system.

Conclusion: Vitamin K has numerous biological effects, including blood coagulation, regulation of calcium metabolism in tissues, oxidative stress, inflammatory reactions, cell growth, and proliferation.


vitamin K, menaquinone, phylloquinone, physiological effects of vitamin K

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