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Izvestia Journal of the Union of Scientists - Varna. Medicine and Ecology Series

The relationship between the position of the hyoid bone and the head posture in mouth-breathing children

Zornitsa Valcheva, Hristina Arnautska, Dilyana Mineva


Introduction: Breathing through the nose allows proper growth and development of the craniofacial complex. Obstruction of the nose leads to breathing through the mouth, which leads to changes in the position of the tongue and lower jaw.

Aim: The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between the position of the hyoid bone and the head posture in mouth-breathing children and nose-breathing children.

Materials and Methods: We analyzed the profile cephalometric radiographs of 120 patients in mixed dentition. All of the studied children were examined by the same doctor of dental medicine, and the children with mouth breathing were consulted and diagnosed by an ear-nose-throat specialist as well. The analyses covered the following: craniocervical angle (NS/OPT), the length of the anterior cranial base (NS), the angle of maxillary prognathism (SNA), angle of mandibular prognathism (SNB), difference between angles SNA and SNB (ANB angle), the angle of the basal planes of the jaws (SpP/MP), and the cranial base angle (NSB).

Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the studied children compared to the skeletal class. The average value of the craniocervical angle (NS/OPT) in mouth-breathing children was 102.5° which is significantly higher compared to nose-breathing children (p < 0.004). A statistically significant difference was found in the type of hyoid bone in mouth-breathing and nose-breathing children (χ2= 24.97; р < 0.001).

Conclusion: In mouth-breathing children, a lower and posterior position of the hyoid bone is found compared to nasal breathing children. Mouth-breathing children show greater extension of the head related to the cervical spine and posterior rotation of the mandible.


mouth breathing, hyoid bone, craniocervical angle

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