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Izvestia Journal of the Union of Scientists - Varna. Medicine and Ecology Series

Epidemiology, etiology, and treatment possibilities for maxillary diastema

Dimo Nedelchev, Desislava Konstantinova


Introduction: Diastema is an aesthetic and phonetic issue most commonly observed in mixed and less frequently in permanent dentition. It is caused by pathological, iatrogenic factors, and those related to jaw development. There is no consensus among various authors regarding its frequency and prevalence in different populations.

Aim: This study aims to conduct an in-depth investigation of the presence, distribution, and possible treatment methods for diastema based on available scientific literature.

Materials and Methods: The study was conducted between August 1, 2023, and September 30, 2023, using the following keywords: “maxillary diastema,” “prosthetic treatment,” and “orthodontic treatment.” After applying all criteria, 36 literature sources were selected.

Results: The analysis of the results reveals different interpretations of the term maxillary diastema. It can be categorized into physiological and pathological diastemata, with various etiological factors influencing its development. The frequency and prevalence vary between populations, ranging from 1.6% to 25.4%. Treatment for maxillary diastema may involve orthodontic treatment, combined orthodontic-surgical treatment, combined orthodontic-prosthetic treatment, therapeutic, and prosthetic treatment.

Conclusion: Our study emphasizes that maxillary diastema is a form of malocclusion with a polyetiological nature and affects aesthetics, functionality, and speech. Therefore, selecting an appropriate treatment approach necessitates diagnosing the causes of its occurrence.


maxillary diastema, prosthetic treatment, orthodontic treatment

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