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Scripta Scientifica Medica

Interl (EUK) Ockin-Ing brain trauma of the neonate

Anton Tonchev


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common cause of morbidity and death in the young population. Many mechanisms of brain damage had been proposed in TBI, among them - inflammatory cell involvement (1). The study of immune cell participation in TBI can be translated into novel strategies for repair after TBI and other acute central nervous system (CNS), therefore it has attracted a significant interest in the literature. A cross-talk between activated immune cells and neural cells could contribute to subsequent recruitment of in- flammatory mediators into the brain, and thus to brain damage (1). In this volume of SSM, Goranova et al. (2) describe the involvement of a cytokine, interkeukin-18 (IL-18), in perinatal TBI. As expected, a significant ac- tivation of microglia occurred after the experimental injury the researchers performed. Notably, both the pro- tein and the mRNA levels of IL-18 and another cytokine, IL-1, were significantly increased after the injury. IL-1 is a known mediator of brain damage after TBI (3), however, the involvement of IL-18 has remained un- resolved to date. Notably, both IL-1 and IL-18 are processed by the inflammasome - a large intracellular mul- tiprotein complex that also activates caspase-1 in apoptosis (4). Indeed, the authors find an increased number of apoptotic cells in the vicinity of IL-1 and/or IL-18-positive cells. The latter turn out to be microglia (2), but a more careful analysis is necessary to precisely track down all cellular phenotypes that might express IL-1 and/ or IL-18. Nevertheless, the data so far suggest a role for IL-18 in TBI as IL-18-deficient mice appear to be pro- tected, at least in part, from this type of brain damage (2). IL-18 thus is novel molecular target for neuroprotec- tion in this clinically significant field of neurosciences.

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Kaur C, Rathnasamy G, Ling EA. Roles of activated microglia in hypoxia induced neuroinflammation in the developing brain and the retina. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2013;8(1):66-78.

Goranova V, Sifringer M, Endesfelder S, Ikonomidou C. Neuroinflammation after traumatic injury to the developing brain. Scr Sci Med. 2015;47:47-52.

Davidson J, Cusimano MD, Bendena WG. Post-Traumatic Brain Injury: Genetic Susceptibility to Outcome. Neuroscientist. 2014; 24. pii: 1073858414543150.

de Rivero Vaccari JP, Dietrich WD1, Keane RW. Activation and regulation of cellular inflammasomes: gaps in our knowledge for central nervous system injury. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2014;34(3):369-75.

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About The Author

Anton Tonchev
Medical university of Varna

Department of anatomy, histology and embryology

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