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Frequency and etiological distribution of genital infections in children with Type 1 Diabetes

Stanimira Elkina, Valentina Popova, Chayka Petrova, Venetsiya Botsova


Purpose: To determine the frequency and etiological distribution of genital infections among children and adolescents with T1D in the Pleven region.
Material: The study was performed at the Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital -Pleven. It involved 78 patients (33 boys and 45 girls) with T1D at the age of 11.9±0.8 years, admitted from March 2013 to March 2014. They were on an intensive insulin therapy with recombinant human insulin or analog insulins.


  • An inspection of the external genitalia for signs of inflammation.
  • Microbiological testing of genital discharge.
  • Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) for assessment of metabolic control.

Results: Out of the 78 studied children, 34 (43.5%) had clinical signs of genital infection (GI). The mean level of their HbA1c was 11.25±0.65%. Positive cultures were found in 28/78 (36%). Most GI were caused by fungi - in 15/28 cases, followed by bacteria - 9/28 and mixed fungal-bacterial flora in 4/28 cases. The main fungal pathogens cultured was Candida albicans in 10/15 cases, followed by Candida tropicalis - in 3/15. Bacteria were presented by Streptococcus agalactiae in 3/9 cases, Enterococcus faecalis - 3/9, Staphylococcus aureus - 2/9 and Escherichia coli in only 1 child.

Conclusions: Our data confirm badly controlled T1D as a predisposing factor for genital infections in children, predominantly with Candida albicans, which can sometimes be associated with bacterial pathogens. This requires external genitalia inspection and microbiological testing for early diagnosis, and adequate treatment to prevent further complications.


children; Type 1 diabetes; genital infections; frequency; etiology

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About The Authors

Stanimira Elkina
Medical University of Pleven

Department of Pediatrics

Valentina Popova
Medical University - Pleven

Department of Microbiology, Virology and Medical Genetics

Chayka Petrova
Medical University - Pleven

Department of Pediatrics

Venetsiya Botsova
Medical University - Pleven

Department of Pediatrics

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