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Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy

Monika Todorova, Daniela Gerova, Bistra Galunska


Vitamin D plays a crucual role during pregnancy. Its active form calcitriol is of utmost importance for placental physiology, for the synthesis of estradiol, progesterone, human chorionic gonadotropin, embryogenesis, and normal progression of pregnancy. Taking in mind the beneficial role of calcitriol on pregnancy, it could be supposed that its inadequacy may lead to deleterious consequences for the mother and fetus. Several studies reveal a correlation between low vitamin D levels during pregnancy and the development of unfavorable consequences for the mother as well as for the fetus: risk of preterm birth, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, low birth weight, and postpartum complications.

Evaluation of vitamin D status during pregnancy is of utmost importance to overcome the adverse outcomes for the mother and newborn. To achieve maximum protection from pregnancy complications, a serum levels of at least 40 ng/mL for the circulating 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 during the earliest time points of pregnancy are recommended.

Control of vitamin D status during pregnancy would present an opportunity for initiating timely and thorough supplementation with harmless and inexpensive vitamin D pharmaceuticals, which in turn would decrease the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes.



vitamin D, calcitriol, deficiency, pregnancy, outcomes

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About The Authors

Monika Todorova
Medical University of Varna

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine


Daniela Gerova
Medical University of Varna

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine


Bistra Galunska
Medical University of Varna

Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Medicine and Nutrigenomics, Faculty of Pharmacy

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