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Diagnosis of skin and eyelid diseases associated with Demodex spp.

Kalina Stoyanova, Jaklina Cvetkova, Tatyana Cvetkova


Introduction: D. folliculorum and D. brevis are two types of obligate ectoparasites in humans that inhabit hair follicles, sebaceous and meibomian glands. Initially considered commensals, now there is growing evidence of their direct or indirect involvement in numerous (mainly chronic) skin and eyelid diseases.

Aim: The present study aims to categorize the information on the methods for diagnosing the diseases associated with Demodex spp. and to specify the morphological characteristics essential for the identification.

Materials and Methods: Various review and meta-analysis articles from the last ten years have been studied, primarily focused on diagnosing demodicosis in humans. The specific morphological features of both species have been visualized with photomicrographic images of some of the positive results.

Results: From the variety of skin testing procedures, the best method to use in outpatient practice is a superficial biopsy with scotch tape. If demodicosis of the eyelids is suspected, the standardized examination method after eyelash removal can be modified by fixing the material with scotch tape, which allows efficient transportation. Implementing the two methods leads to the rapid and accurate identification of these ectoparasites.

Conclusion: The introduction of two new diagnostic techniques in the parasitological laboratories reveals the involvement of Demodex spp. in the pathogenesis of numerous skin and eyelid diseases. This allows dermatologists and ophthalmologists to refine the therapeutic approach in each case, improving the patients’ clinical condition and quality of life faster and more efficiently.

Full Text


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About The Authors

Kalina Stoyanova
Medical University of Varna

Department of Infectious Diseases, Parasitology and Dermatovenerеology, Faculty of Medicine;

Status Medical and Diagnostic Laboratory, Varna

Jaklina Cvetkova
Status Medical and Diagnostic Laboratory, Varna

Student, Department of General and Applied Hydrobiology, Faculty of Biology, Sofia University St. Kliment Ohridski, Bulgaria

Tatyana Cvetkova
Medical University of Varna

Department of Infectious Diseases, Parasitology and Dermatovenerеology, Faculty of Medicine;

Lina Medical and Diagnostic Laboratory, Varna

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