Scientific Online Resource System

Scripta Scientifica Medicinae Dentalis

Comparison of the osseointegration of implants in smokers and non-smokers

Elena Yoncheva, Dimitar Filtchev


Introduction: Wound healing is fundamental to the process of osseointegration and smoking is recognized as a risk factor. Several mechanisms have been proposed by which smoking may affect wound healing. The development of osseointegrated implants represents one of the most important breakthroughs in contemporary dental practice in the oral rehabilitation of partially or fully edentulous patients.

Aim: The aim of this retrospective study is to compare the osseointegration of implants with two kinds of surfaces in smokers and non-smokers.

Materials and Methods: Patients - smokers and non-smokers, with implant treatment for at least 3 years, were divided into four groups with 25 patients in each group. Their implant placement was made following the same protocol, by one operator and after that they received same instructions.

Results and Discussion: Both osseointegration and good healing of the mucosal structures are required for den­tal implant placement to be successful.

Conclusion: Smoking is one of the factors contributing to implant failure. It imposes multiple effects on the oral mucosa. The soft tissues around implants with two kinds of surfaces showed stable healing between smokers and non-smokers, with no great difference.


smokers, non-smokers, osseointegration, implants

Full Text


Levin L, Schwartz-Arad D. The effect of cigarette smoking on dental implants and related surgery. Implant Dent. 2005;14(4):357–63. doi: 10.1097/

Roos-Jansaker AM, Lindahl C, Renvert H, Renvert S. Nine to fourteen-year follow-up of implant treatment. Part I: implant loss and associations to various factors. J Clin Periodontol.

;33(4):283–9. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2006.00907.x.

Moy PK, Medina D, Shetty V, Aghaloo TL. Dental implant failures and associated risk factors. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2005;20(4):569–77.

Hinode D, Tanabe S, Yokoyama M, Fujisawa K, Yamauchi E, Miyamoto Y. The influence of smoking on osseointegrated implant failure: a meta-analysis. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2006; 17(4):473–8. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2005.01244.x.

Liddelow G, Klineberg I. Patient-related risk factors for implant therapy. A critique of pertinent literature. Aust Dent J. 2011; 56(4):417–26. doi: 10.1111/j.1834-7819.2011.01367.x.

Bain CA. Smoking and implant failure benefits of a smoking cessation protocol. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 1996; 11(6):756–9.

Todisco M, Trisi P. Histomorphometric evaluation of six dental implant surfaces after early loading in augmented human sinuses. J Oral Implantol. 2006;32(4):153-66. doi: 10.1563/812.1.

Mombelli A, Van Oosten MAC, Schürch E, Lang NP. The microbiota associated with successful or failing osseointegrated titanium implants. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 1987; 2(4):145–51. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-302x.1987.tb00298.x.



About The Authors

Elena Yoncheva
Medical University - Sofia

Faculty of Dental Medicine

Dimitar Filtchev
Medical University - Sofia

Faculty of Dental Medicine

Font Size