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Scripta Scientifica Medicinae Dentalis

Endodontic irrigation

Tsvetelina Borisova-Papancheva, Slavena Svetlozarova, Natalia Kostadinova


Introduction: The removal of pulp tissue and dentin debris from the root canal system, as well as the chemical and mechanical cleaning of the root canal system, are all necessary for an endodontic procedure to be successful. It is challenging to completely treat the dentinal surface of the root canal due to the complex root-canal shape, extra lateral canals, and the characteristics of the apical delta. Large portions of the main canal are still untreated and uncleaned according to numerous studies. The canal contents are evacuated to varied degrees and part of it is pushed apically and towards the walls during the shaping of the canal space without irrigants, resulting in the formation of a dense contaminant layer. Because of this, irrigation plays an essential role in endodontic therapy. The irrigant must be delivered to the prepared root space in order to be distributed to all areas, including mechanically untreated ones.

Aim:  The primary goal of this article is to investigate the properties of various types of irrigation solutions, the concentrations at which they are used in modern dentistry, and how their effectiveness can be increased.

Materials and Methods: For this research investigation, data were gathered from online databases.

Results: Some of the most widely used irrigation solutions are sodium hypochlorite, EDTA, sterile water or saline, citric acid, and other combined solutions.

Conclusion: The main issues with using irrigation solutions are their inability to reach the most complex anatomical structures in the apical third, the clinical usage time, and their toxicity to the periapical tissues.

Keywords: irrigation, sodium hypochloride, EDTA, citric acid


irrigation, sodium hypochloride, EDTA, citric acid

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About The Authors

Tsvetelina Borisova-Papancheva
Medical University of Varna

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dental Medicine

Slavena Svetlozarova
Medical University of Varna

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dental Medicine

Natalia Kostadinova
Medical University of Varna

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dental Medicine

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