Scientific Online Resource System

Scripta Scientifica Pharmaceutica

A study of surface water pollution with azithromycin in Ukraine

Hanna Yeromina, Zinaida Ieromina, Andrii Fedosov, Olha Vislous, Мarharyta Suleiman, Taras Upyr, Irina Sych, Lina Perekhoda


Introduction: Water pollution with antibiotics plays a key role in the formation and spread of antibiotic resistance, which threatens humanity and the environment as a whole.

Aim: The purpose of our work was to develop a method for determining azithromycin in wastewater and surface water using the thin-layer chromatography method.

Materials and Methods: The developed technique was tested in the wastewater of Zolochiv district of Kharkiv region.

Results and Discussion: Using conventional analytical scales and universal chromatography in thin layers of a sorbent, it is possible to identify azithromycin with a water concentration of ≥ 30 µg/mL without complex and expensive equipment, such as HPLC or LC/MS/MS. The results showed that the concentration of azithromycin is less than 30 µg/mL.


pollutants; antibiotic resistance; thin-layer chromatography; surface water; PEC; PNEC; EMA

Full Text


Directive 2013/39/eu of the European parliament and of the council. EUR-Lex. 2013. (Position statement). Available from:

Minuhina VV, Zviagintseva TV. Antibіotikorezistentnіst mіkroorganіzmіv: mekhanіzmi rozvitku y shlyakhi zapobіgannya. 2014:1-16. Ukrainian.

Liu YY, Wang Y, Walsh TR, Yi LX, Zhang R, Spencer J, et al. Emergence of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance mechanism MCR-1 in animals and humans begins in China: a micribiological and molecular biological study. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2016;16(2):131-264. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(15)00424-7.

Bereznyakov ІG. Antibіotikorezistentnіst v Ukrainі za rezultatami doslіdzhennya AURA (ch.1). Zdorovia Ukrainy. Khirurhiia, ortopediia, travmatolohiia, intensyvna terapiia. 2020:5(43). Ukrainian.

Natasha Gilbert. World`s rivers «awash with dangerous levels of antibiotics». The Guardian. 2019. Available from:

EUR-Lex. Commission implementing decision (EU) 2015/495 of 20 March 2015 establishing a watch list of substances for Union-wide monitoring in the field of water policy pursuant to Directive 2008/105/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council (Position statement). 2015. Available from:

Gyselinck I, Janssens W, Verhamme P, Vos P. Rationale for azithromycin in COVID-19: an overview of existing evidence. BMJ Open Respir Res. 2021:8(1);e000806. doi: 10.1136/bmjresp-2020-000806.

Lamback EB, Oliveira MA, Haddad AF, Vieira AFM, Neto ALF, Maia TDS, et al. Hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin in patients hospitalized for mild and moderate COVID-19. Brazilian J Infect Dis. 2021;25(2):101549. doi: 10.1016/J.BJID.2021.101549.

European Medicines Agency. Guideline on the environmental risk assessment of medicinal products for human use (Position statement). 2006. Available from:

Yevseeva LV, Netesova KYu, Gubin YuI, Zhuravel IA. Otsenka farmatsevticheskikh zagryazniteley poverkhnostnykh vod Ukrainy. Upravlinnia, ekonomika ta zabezpechennia yakosti v farmatsii. 2016;4(48):4-10. Ukrainian.

Chyselnist naselennia ta serednia chyselnist za periody roku. 1998-2021. Derzhstat Ukrainy. Available from: Ukrainian.

List of Predicted No-Effect Concentrations (PNECs). 2018. AMR Industry Alliance Antibiotic Discharge Targets. Retrieved from



About The Authors

Hanna Yeromina
National University of Pharmacy

Zinaida Ieromina
National University of Pharmacy

Andrii Fedosov
National University of Pharmacy

Olha Vislous
National University of Pharmacy

Мarharyta Suleiman
National University of Pharmacy

Taras Upyr
National University of Pharmacy

Irina Sych
National University of Pharmacy

Lina Perekhoda
National University of Pharmacy

Font Size