Scientific Online Resource System

Scripta Scientifica Salutis Publicae

Is there an association between urban greenness and air pollution annoyance?

Donka Dimitrova, Angel Dzhambov

Abstract

Background

Apart from its physical effects air pollution might exert psychological stress effect on health. Based on the limited evidence about the symbolic value of urban greenness in traffic perception and a small body of research indicating that greenness might abate the negative perception of noise pollution, we hypothesized that it could also reduce air pollution annoyance.

Aim

We aimed to test this hypothesis and determine whether greenness could buffer the annoyance reaction to air pollution.

Material and methods

In a sample of 508 residents of Plovdiv, Bulgaria we investigated the interplay between objective and perceived air pollution exposure, annoyance, and several indicators of urban greenness, using path models.

Results

Results showed that women living closer to a green space reported lower perceived air pollution exposure and through it - lower annoyance. This indirect path was driving the total effect and perceived air pollution acted as a full mediator. Among men there was no effect. With respect to perceived greenness, no effects on air pollution annoyance were found.

Conclusion

In conclusion, urban green spaces might act as a buffer for the psychological stress effect of air pollution. Nonetheless, at this formative stage of research the evidence is tentative.


Keywords

air pollution, perceived air pollution, air pollution annoyance, stress, greenness, green space

Full Text


References

WHO. Fact sheet: Ambient (outdoor) air quality and health; 2014.

Mannucci PM, Harari S, Martinelli I, Franchini M. Effects on health of air pollution: a narrative review. Intern Emerg Med. 2015:10, 657-662.

Mehta AJ, Kubzansky LD, Coull BA, Kloog I, Koutrakis P, Sparrow D, Spiro A. 3rd, Vokonas P, Schwartz J. Associations between air pollution and perceived stress: the Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study. Environ Health 2015:14, 10.

Colligan MJ. The psychological effects of indoor air pollution. Bull N Y Acad Med. 1981:57, 1014-1026.

Lidén E, Nordin S, Högman L, Ulander A, Deniz F, Gunnarsson AG. Assessment of odor annoyance and its relationship to stimulus concentration and odor intensity. Chem. Senses. 1998:23, 113-117.

Fernández-Somoano A, Llop S, Aguilera I, Tamayo-Uria I, Martínez MD, Foraster M, Ballester F, Tardón A. Annoyance Caused by Noise and Air Pollution during Pregnancy: Associated Factors and Correlation with Outdoor NO2 and Benzene Estimations. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015:12, 7044-7058.

Klaeboe R, Amundsen AH, Fyhri A. Annoyance from vehicular air pollution: A comparison of European exposure-response relationships. Atmos Environ 2008:42(33), 7689-7694.

Stenlund T, Lidén E, Andersson K, Garvill J, Nordin S. Annoyance and health symptoms and their influencing factors: a population-based air pollution intervention study. Public Health. 2009:123, 339-345.

Claeson AS, Lidén E, Nordin M, Nordin S. The role of perceived pollution and health risk perception in annoyance and health symptoms: a population-based study of odorous air pollution. International Arch Occup Environ Health. 2013:86, 367-374.

Oiamo TH. Environmental Health Effects of Multiple Exposures: Systemic Risks and the Detroit River International Crossing Study. [PhD thesis]. London, Ontario, Canada: The University of Western Ontario; 2015

Jacquemin B, Sunyer J, Forsberg B, Götschi T, Bayer-Oglesby L, Ackermann-Liebrich U, de Marco R, Heinrich J, Jarvis D, Torén K, Künzli N. Annoyance due to air pollution in Europe. Int J Epidem. 2007:36, 809-820.

Janhäll S. Review on urban vegetation and particle air pollution - Deposition and dispersion. Atmos Environ. 2015:105, 130-137.

Nowak DJ, Crane DE, Stevens JC. Air pollution removal by urban trees and shrubs in the United States. Urban For Urban Gree. 2006:4, 115-123.

Givoni B. Impact of planted areas on urban environmental quality: a review. Atmospheric Environment. Part B. Urban Atmos. 1991:25, 289-299.

Akbari H. Shade trees reduce building energy use and CO2 emissions from power plants. Environ Pollut. 2002:116, S119-S126.

Dzhambov AM, Dimitrova DD. Urban green spaces' effectiveness as a psychological buffer for the negative health impact of noise pollution: A systematic review. Noise Health. 2014:16, 157-165.

Dzhambov AM, Dimitrova DD. Green spaces and environmental noise perception, Urban For Urban Gree. 2015:14, 1000-1008.

Day R. Place and the experience of air quality. Health Place. 2007:13, 249-260.

Madureira H, Nunes F, Oliveira JV, Cormier L, Madureira T. Urban residents` beliefs concerning green space benefits in four cities in France and Portugal. Urban For Urban Gree. 2015:14, 56-64.

Lo AYH, Jim CY. Citizen attitude and expectation towards green space provision in compact urban milieu. Land Use Policy. 2012:29, 577-586.

Shmool JL, Reid CE, Kubzansky LD, Spengler J, Clougherty JE. Intra-urban air pollution concentrations, perceived air quality, and greenspace across New York City. The International Society of Exposure Science - 25th Annual Meeting: Exposures in an Evolving Environment. Henderson, Nevada; 2015

Petrova S, Yurukova L, Velcheva I. Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) as a biomonitor of air pollution in the town of Plovdiv (Bulgaria). J Biosci Biotechnol. 2012:1, 241-247.

Takuchev N, Vasileva I, Petrova S. Dispersion Modeling of the Air Pollution, Emitted by the Traffic in the Transport Tunnel under the Old Town of Plovdiv, Bulgaria. Ecol Balk 2014:6, 73-86.

Wolf EJ, Harrington KM, Clark SL, Miller MW. Sample size requirements for structural equation models an evaluation of power, bias, and solution propriety. Educ Psychol Meas. 2013:73, 913-934.

Fritz MS, Mackinnon DP. Required sample size to detect the mediated effect. Psychol Sci. 2007:18, 233-239.

Municipality of Plovdiv. Program for reaching the normative levels of fine particulate matter under 2.5 microns (PM2,5) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the atmospheric air on the territory of Municipality of Plovdiv. (in Bulgarian); 2011

Dzhambov AM. Validity of self-reported traffic intensity as a proxy for road traffic counts and noise. Noise Cont Eng J. 2015:63, 11-19.

Dzhambov AM, Dimitrova DD. Validating a short Bulgarian version of a psychometric instrument for multidimensional noise sensitivity assessment. Fol Med (Plovdiv). 2014:56, 116-125.

Stansfeld SA, Clark CR, Jenkins LM, Tarnopolsky A. Sensitivity to noise in a community sample: I. Measurement of psychiatric disorder and personality. Psychol Med. 1985:15, 243-254.

Andersson L, Johansson A, Millqvist E, Nordin S, Bende M. Prevalence and risk factors for chemical sensitivity and sensory hyperreactivity in teenagers. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2008:211, 690-697.

Nordin S, Ljungberg JK, Claeson AS, Neely G. Stress and odor sensitivity in persons with noise sensitivity. Noise Health 2013:15, 173-177.

Dirks KN, Shepherd D, Welch D, McBride D. Annoyance to traffic noise and annoyance to air pollution: an orthogonal or co-varying relationship in noise-sensitive individuals? Internoise, Innsbruck, Austria; 2013

Hayes A. Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York: Guilford Press; 2013

Gustafson PE. Gender differences in risk perception: theoretical and methodological perspectives. Risk Anal. 1998:18, 805-11.

Harris CR, Jenkins M. Gender Differences in Risk Assessment: Why do Women Take Fewer Risks than Men? Judgm Decis Mak. 2006:1, 48-63.

Verma R, Balhara YPS, Gupta CS. Gender differences in stress response: Role of developmental and biological determinants. Ind Psychiatry J. 2011:20, 4-10.

Roe JJ, Thompson CW, Aspinall PA, Brewer MJ, Duff EI, Miller D, Mitchell R, Clow A. Green space and stress: evidence from cortisol measures in deprived urban communities. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013:10, 4086-103.

Richardson EA, Mitchell R. Gender differences in relationships between urban green space and health in the United Kingdom. Soc Sci Med. 2010:71, 568-75.

Okokon EO, Turunen AW, Ung-Lanki S, Vartiainen AK, Tiittanen P, Lanki T. Road-traffic noise: annoyance, risk perception, and noise sensitivity in the Finnish adult population. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015:12, 5712-34.

Klaeboe R, Kolbenstvedt M, Clench-Aas J, Bartonova A. Oslo traffic study - part 1: An integrated approach to assess the combined effects of noise and air pollution on annoyance. Atmos Environ. 2000:34(27), 4727-4736.

Brody SD, Zahran S. Commentary: Linking particulate matter and sulphur concentrations to air pollution annoyance: problems of measurement, scale and control. Int J Epidemiol 2007: 36, 820-823.

Heinonen-Guzejev M, Koskenvuo M, Mussalo-Rauhamaa H, Vuorinen HS, Heikkilä K, Kaprio J. Noise sensitivity and multiple chemical sensitivity scales: properties in a population based epidemiological study. Noise Health. 2012:14, 215-223.

Shepherd D, Heinonen-Guzejev M, Heikkilä K, Dirks KN, Hautus MJ, Welch D, McBride D. The negative affect hypothesis of noise sensitivity. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015:12, 5284-5303.

Quercia D, Schifanella R, Aiello L, McLean K. Smelly Maps: The Digital Lives of Urban Smellscapes. In: AAAI Publications, Ninth International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media, Oxford; 2015.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14748/sssp.v2i2.1796

Refbacks

About The Authors

Donka Dimitrova
Medical University of Plovdiv
Bulgaria

Department of Health Management and Healthcare Economics, Faculty of Public Health

Angel Dzhambov
Department of Hygiene and ecomedicine, Faculty of Public Health, Medical University of Plovdiv
Bulgaria

environmental hygiene/medicine, biostatistics, systematic reviews and meta-analyses

Font Size


|