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Imaging diagnostic methods for colorectal cancer in contemporary medicine. Types and prevention

Bistra Velchovska, Zhenya Zhekova-Maradzhieva, Atanas Uzunov, Evgeniya Ivanova, Desislava Petrova, Mariana Yordanova, Georgi Valchev

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Colon cancer (colorectal carcinoma) is a malignant tumor, stemming from the wall of the colon. It is the second most common carcinoma in men (after pulmonary and before stomach cancers) and the third most common in women (after breast and uterine carcinomas). Its frequency has been increasing steadily in the last years. It most often affects people past 50 years of age, but about 20% of cases occur before that point. Histologically, 80% of cases are of adenocarcinoma and about 20% - mucinous. Carcinomas generally develop on the basis of adenomas.

AIM: To examine the types, the prevention and the imaging diagnostic methods for the cancer of the large intestine and of the colon of modern medicine.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: This research applies statistical methods. The data was processed through statistical and graphical analyses.

RESULTS: Screening methods applied with success are as follows: rectoromanoscopy, fibrocolonoscopy, irigography, computed tomographic colonography, magnetic resonance tomography. The most frequently used two are irigography with a barium enema and fibrocolonoscopy. The former allows for a thorough radiological topographical analysis of the whole colon, while the latter allows for direct mucosal visualization and biopsy (both cytological and histological) without radiation by means of a flexible metallic tube inserted retrogradely. Fibrocolonoscopy enables minor minimally invasive surgery such as polyp and small tumor removal. Rectoromanoscopy is a dated method, solely with historical significance. The latest imaging diagnostic methods are the tomographic ones - computed tomography, computed tomography virtual colonoscopy, and magnetic resonance tomography. They are highly informative for all diseases of the colon, contributing considerably to tumor staging, and to preoperative assessment.

CONCLUSIONS: Screening programs, timely consultations with specialists and the increasing availability of imaging diagnostic equipment lead to a marked tendency of decreasing colorectal carcinoma mortality in Bulgaria.


Keywords

large intestine, colon, carcinoma, imaging diagnostics, polyps

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14748/sssp.v2i0.3521

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About The Authors

Bistra Velchovska
Medical University of Varna

Student, TRS X-ray Laboratory Assistant Professor, Medical College

Zhenya Zhekova-Maradzhieva
Medical University of Varna
Bulgaria

Student, TRS X-ray Laboratory Assistant Professor, Medical College

Atanas Uzunov
Medical University of Varna
Bulgaria

Student, TRS X-ray Laboratory Assistant Professor, Medical College

Evgeniya Ivanova
Medical University - Sofia
Bulgaria

Student, TRS Assistant Pharmacist, Medical College `Yordanka Filaretova`

Desislava Petrova
Medical University of Varna
Bulgaria

Student, TRS Assistant Pharmacist, Medical College, 

Mariana Yordanova
Medical University of Varna
Bulgaria

TRS X-ray Laboratory Assistant Professor, Medical College

Georgi Valchev
Medical University of Varna
Bulgaria

Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine

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