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Distribution of molar incisor hypomineralization in children in Northeast Bulgaria. Severity of the dysplasia and sensitivity of the affected teeth

Milena Todorova Georgieva-Dimitrova



Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is dysplasia associated with quantitative and qualitative disturbance in the development of the hard tooth tissues, described as a separate nosological unit for the first time in 2001. The distribution of the disease is significantly different in different geographic regions and varies from 2.4% to 40% with average distribution worldwide of 12.9% affecting over 17 million people all over the world. The modern science still cannot determine its exact etiological cause so it is considered that dysplasia is an idiopathic disease. Gene mutation is discussed as an etiological factor caused by the influence of environmental factors. Other causes might be systemic diseases, infections, intoxications, and use of different medicines.

AIM: The aim of the article is to investigate the distribution of MIH in relation to its severity and concomitant hyperesthesia.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in the University Medical Dental Center - Varna, including 1183 children, examined with a standard set of dental instruments – dental mirror, probe and pincers. The examination was done after professional cleaning and drying of the teeth. The dental status was filled out in individual ambulatory cards for each patient.

RESULTS: The study investigated the distribution of MIH in Northeast Bulgaria and found that 6% of the children in the sample experienced dysplasia. In most of the cases (61%), children had all 4 permanent molars affected by it. The results supported outcomes of other studies regarding the association between the severity of the dysplasia and the presence of concomitant hyperesthesia. With the increase in the severity of MIH tooth sensitivity increases.

CONCLUSION: Recent studies concerning the distribution of MIH have shown that dysplasia appears frequently in modern society. Severe hyperesthesia reflects the lifestyle and restricts the diet of children. In some cases, a radical surgical approach is considered, which may traumatize the psychological state of the child and increase the anxiety in future dental treatment.


molar incisor hypomineralization, distribution, severity, sensitivity

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About The Author

Milena Todorova Georgieva-Dimitrova
Medical University of Varna

Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine

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