Scientific Online Resource System

Varna Medical Forum

Periodontal biotype assessment - probe transparency method - variations in relation то age and sex

Irena Georgieva, Teodora Targova, Sirma Angelova


The thickness of gingival tissues has a decisive meaning for the aesthetic result of dental therapy, especially in the aesthetic zone of the maxilla. The periodontal biotype is classified as flat-thick and festooned-thin. The morphologic characteristics of gingival tissues depend on several factors, such as the morphologic features of the bone, tooth crown form, orthodontic anomalies in tooth eruption, etc. Different periodontal biotypes react with different healing response to the inflammatory process and dental therapy.

The thickness of gingival tissues is assessed in 220 patients (80 males and 140 females). The periodontal biotype is determined according to the Kan`s TRAN-method (2003). The descriptive statistical analysis is done by IBM SPSS Statistic version 19 softwаre.

The analysis of the results shows that there is no positive correlation between the periodontal biotype and age.


periodontal biotype; aesthetic risk; maxilla; aesthetic zone

Full Text


Barriviera M, Duarte WR, Janua´rio AL, Faber J, Bezerra ACB. A new method to assess and measure palatal masticatory mucosa by cone-beam computerized tomography. J. Clin. Period. 2009; 36: 564-8

Claffey N, Shanley D. Relationship of gingival thickness and bleeding to loss of probing attachment in shallow sites following nonsurgical periodontal therapy. J. Clin. Period. 1986; 13(7): 654-7

De Rouck T, Eghbali R, Collys K, De Bruyn H, Cosyn J. The gingival biotype revisited: transparency of the periodontal probe through the gingival margin as a method to discriminate thin from thick gingiva. J. Clin. Period. 2009; 36(5): 428-33

Greenberg J, Laster L, Listgarten MA. Transgingival probing as a potential estimator

of alveolar bone level. J. Period. 1976; 47: 514-7

Kao RT, Pasquinelil K. Thick vs Thin gingival tissue: a key determinant in tissue response to disease and restorative treatment. J. Cal. Dent. Assoc. 2002; 30(7): 521-6.

Kassab MM, Cohen RE. The etiology and prevalence of gingival recession. J. Amer. Dent. Assoc. 2003; 134(2): 220-5

Kois JC. Predictable single tooth peri-implant esthetics: five diagnostic keys. Compend. of Cont. Educ. Dent. 2001; 22: 199-206

Kolliyavar B, Setty S, Thakur SL. Determination of thickness of palatal mucosa. J. Ind. Soc. Perio 2012; 16(1): 80-3

Muller HP. Repeatability of ultrasonic determination of gingival thickness. Clin.Oral Invest. 2003; 11: 439-42

Nagaraj KR, Savadi RC, Savadi AR, Prashanth GT, Srilakshmi J, Dayalan M, et all. Gingival biotype - prosthodontic perspective. J.Ind. Prosth. Soc. 2010; 10(1): 27-30

Ochsenbein C, Ross S. A re-evaluation of osseous surgery. Dent. Clin. N. Amer. 1969; 13(1): 87-102

Olsson M, Lindhe J. Periodontal characteristics in individuals with varying form of the upper central incisors. Jour. Clin. Period. 1991; 18(1): 78-82

Richard T, Kao, Mark C, Fagan, Gregory J. Thick vs. thin gingival biotypes: A key determinant in treatment planning for dental implants. CDA Journal 2008; 36: 193-8.

Seba A, Deepak KT, Ambili R, Preeja C, Archana V. Gingival biotype and its clinical significance - a review - Saudi J.Dent. Res. 2014; 5(1): 3-7

Stein JM, Lintel-Höping N, Hammächer C, Kasaj A, Tamm M, et all.. The gingival biotype: measurement of soft and hard tissue dimensions - a radiographic morphometric study - J. Clin. Perio 2013; 40(12): 1132-9

Vandana KL, Savitha B. Thickness of gingiva in association with age, gender and dental arch location. J. Clin. Period. 2005; 32: 828−30.

Wood R, Sun Z, Chaudhry J, Tee BC, Kim DG, et all. Factors affecting the accuracy of buccal alveolar bone height measurements from cone-beam computed tomography images. Am. J. Orthod. Dentof. Orth. 2013; 143(3): 353-63



Font Size