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Varna Medical Forum

Prevention of infections by vaccines and immune modulators

Viktoria Ivanova, Darina Dimitrova, Ekaterina Ivanova, Raina Gergova


Introduction: The discovery and implementation of vaccines and immune modulators in medical practice is a huge step forward towards the prevention of infectious diseases, some of which have lead to a fatal outcome during the past centuries. Immune prophylaxis has been continuously improving along with the progress in medical sciences by developing more advanced technologies for safer and more effective vaccines, which increases the health status of the population of our society. The deaths and severely debilitating cases have disappeared and the cost of treatment has been reduced.
Aim: The aim of this work is to present the classification of vaccines and immune modulators, as well as the current state of the effect of their application on the prevention of infectious diseases.
Materials and Methods: Current information from scientific sources on the prevention by vaccines and immune modulators has been accumulated. It has been analyzed, systematically presented and illustrated by appropriate graphics.
Results and Discussion: The importance of vaccines and immune modulators for limiting a number of dangerous viral and bacterial infections, such as successful eradication of smallpox, is shown. Contemporary classification of these agents for immune prophylaxis is presented. The vaccines and immune modulators used nowadays in Bulgaria are listed, the up-to-date immunization calendar is considered. Both the beneficial effects of their application and some undesirable side effects are objectively presented. Trends for the future development of immune prevention in Bulgaria and in the world are traced.
Conclusions: The effect of application of vaccines and immune modulating agents in medical science and practice has been proved to be useful not only for prophylaxis but also for therapy of some infectious diseases during the last two centuries. Very limited and relieved are infections caused by strong pathogenic viruses and bacteria. Also, an effect against some tumor formations has been established. To increase the effectiveness of their implementation worldwide, planned and coordinated efforts of healthcare institutions in all the countries are required, and this is achieved thanks to the unifying activity of WHO.


vaccine prophylaxis; immune modulators; infectious diseases

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