Scientific Online Resource System

Varna Medical Forum

Periodontal risk profile assessment – a review

Irena Georgieva


Risk assessment of periodontal disease in patients and populations with increased risk of developing periodontitis may have great importance for clinical decisions in periodontal therapy. This risk assessment consists of assessing the level of infection – bleeding on probing index, presence of residual periodontal pockets, loss of teeth, assessment of alveolar bone loss in relation to the patient's age, assessment of systemic conditions and assessment of some risk factors from the environment as smoking.

The functional chart of periodontal risk assessment helps the clinician in determining the risk of progression of periodontal disease at the individual level, as well as in determining the frequency and extent of control visits during supportive therapy.


periodontitis; risk assessment; risk factors; reinfection; progression; recurrence

Full Text


Koshi Е, Rajesh S, Koshi Ph, Arunima P.R. Risk assessment for periodontal disease. J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2012 Jul-Sep; 16(3): 324–328, doi-10.4103/0972-124X.100905

Lang NP, Tonetti MS. Periodontal Risk Assessment (PRA) for Patients in Supportive Periodontal Therapy (SPT) - Oral Health & Preventive Dentisty 1/2003, S. 7-16

Page RC, Krall EA, Martin J, Mancl L, Garcia RI. Validity and accuracy of a risk calculator in predicting periodontal disease. J Am Dent Assoc. 2002 May; 133(5): 569-76.

Claffey N. Decision making in periodontal therapy. The re-evaluation. - J Clin Periodontol 1991;18:384-389

American Academy of Periodontology statement on Risk Assessment. J Periodontol 2008;2:202

Douglass CW. Risk assessment and management of periodontal disease. J Am Dent Assoc 2006;137:275-315.

Reners M. Periodontology made easy. (L’Ínformation Dentaire), 2018,chapter 3:33-49

Loos B, Papantonopoulos G, Jepsen S, Laine M. What is the contribution of genetics to periodontal risk? Dent Clin North Am 2015;59(4):761-80

Bruce L. Pihlstrom. Periodontal risk assessment, diagnosis and treatment planning. Periodontol 2000. 2001;25:37–58.

Axelsson P, Lindhe J. Effect of controlled oral hygiene procedures on caries and periodontal disease in adults. Results after 6 years. J Clin Periodontol 1981;8:239-248.

Kornman KS, Löe H. The role of local factors in the etiology of periodontal diseases. Periodontology 2000, 1993; 2:83-97.

Joss A, Adler R, Lang NP. Bleeding on probing. A parameter for monitoring periodontal conditions in clinical practice. J. Clin. Periodontol., 1994; 21:402-408

Badersten A, Nilvéus R, Egelberg J. Scores of plaque, bleeding suppuration and probing depth to predict probing attachment loss. – J. Clin. Periodontol., 1990; 17:102-107.

Claffey N, Nylund K, Kiger R, Garrett S, Egelberg J. Diagnostic predictability of scores of plaque, bleeding, suppuration, and probing pocket depths for probing attachment loss. 3 1/2 years of observation following initial therapy. J. Clin. Periodontol., 1990; 17:108-114.

Lang NP, Adler R, Joss A, Nyman S. Absence of bleeding on probing. An indicator of periodontal stability - J Clin Periodontol, 1990; 17:714-721.

Käyser AF. Limited treatment goals -shortened dental arches. Periodontol 2000 1994; 4:7-14.

Van der Velden U. The onset age of periodontal destruction. J Clin Periodontol, 1991; 18:380-383.

Persson RE, Tzannetou S, Feloutzis AG, Brägger U, Persson GR, Lang NP. Comparison between panoramic and intra-oral radiographs for the assessment of alveolar bone levels in a periodontal maintenance population. J Clin Peridontol 2003;30

Tonetti MS, Pini-Prato G, Cortellini P. Effect of cigarette smoking on periodontal healing following GTR in infrabony defects. A preliminary retrospective study. J Clin Periodontol. 1995 Mar;22(3): 229-34

Vernillo AT. Dental considerations for the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus. J Am Dent Assoc 2003;134(supplement I):245-335.

Mealey B. Diabetes and periodontal diseases. J Periodontol 1999;70:935-49.

Tervonen T, Oliver RC. Long term control of diabetes mellitus and periodontitis. J Clin Periodontol 1993;20:431-5

Hildebrand HC, Epstein J, Lorjova H. The influence of psychological stress on periodontal disease. J West Soc Periodontol Periodontal Abstr 2000;48:69-77

Kornman KS, Crane A, Wang HY, Newman MG, Pirk FW, Wilson TG Jr, et al. The interleukin-I genotype as a severity factor in adult periodontal disease. J Clin Periodontol 1997;24:72-7

Offenbacher S, Beck JD. A perspective on the potential cardio protective benefits of periodontal therapy. Am Heart J 2005;149:950-4.

Chaffee BW, Couch ET, Ryder MI. The tobacco-using periodontal patient: role of the dental practitioner in tobacco cessation and periodontal disease management. Periodontol 2000, 2016 Jun;71(1):52-64. doi: 10.1111/prd.12120

Bergström J, Eliasson S, Dock J. Exposure to tobacco smoking and periodontal health. J Clin Periodontol 2000; 27(1):61-68

Haber J, Wattles J, Crowley M, Mandell R, Joshipura K, Kent RL. Evidence for cigarette smoking as a major risk factor for periodontitis. J Periodontol. 1993 Jan;64(1):16-23

Johnson GK. Margaret Hill Cigarette smoking and the periodontal patient. J Periodontol 2004;75:196-209.

Buffoli B, Garzetti G, Calza S, Scotti E, Borsani E,et al. Periodontitis Stage III-IV, Grade C and Correlated Factors: A Histomorphometric Study.- Biomedicines. 2019 Jun 12;7(2). pii: E43. doi: 10.3390/biomedicines7020043

Preber H, Bergström J. Occurrence of gingival bleeding in smoker and non-smoker patients. Acta Odontol Scand. 1985 Oct;43(5):315-20

Preber H, Bergström J. Effect of cigarette smoking on periodontal healing following surgical therapy. J Clin Periodontol. 1990 May; 17(5): 324-8

Tonetti MS, Pini-Prato G, Cortellini P. Effect of cigarette smoking on periodontal healing following GTR in infrabony defects. A preliminary retrospective study. J Clin Periodontol. 1995 Mar;22(3): 229-34

Heitz-Mayfield LJ. Peri-implant diseases: diagnosis and risk indicators. J Clin Periodontol. 2008 Sep; 35(8 Suppl): 292-304, doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2008.01275.x.

Page R, Beck J. Risk assessment for periodontal diseases. Int. Dent. J., 2011;



Font Size