Scientific Online Resource System

Varna Medical Forum

Clinical Manifestation Of The Carious Process In Children Between 0 And 5 Years Of Age Diagnosed With Nephrotic Syndrome

Sirma Angelova


Nephrotic syndrome affects predominantly children between 1 and 6 years of age. The disease is characterized with high level of risk of recurrence. Symptoms can be overcome and controlled by application of immunosuppressive therapy. Reduction of the serum concentration of calcium at the expense of the protein-connected compounds of calcium is an essential paraclinical finding. The nephrotic syndrome is a prolonged excretory system disorder, marked by potentials of eventual complications, related to the nature of the disease and specifics of treatment. Caries risk evaluation ensures precise registration of newly occurring carious lesions or white spots of demineralization for a specific period of time. It has been established that more susceptible to carious lesions are children of younger age, these suffering from chronic common health disorders, as well as these with limited access to complex, adequate to the individual needs, dental care. The high risk of caries in the interval between 0 and 5 years of age correlates to the registration of a minimum of one of these traits: children with more than one decayed, missing or filled tooth surfaces; children with active lesions of the type “white spot” or enamel defects; children with increased concentration of Streptococcus mutans in the oral cavity. The aim of this study concerns the assessment of the clinical manifestation of the carious process in children up to the age of 5 with the diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome. The subject of the investigation are patients with primary dentition. The greatest number of carious lesions, equal to 10, has been recorded among 25% of all the included patients with kidney disorder. The maximum number of “white spots”, namely 10, has been established in 25% of all the children involved with common health disorder of nephrotic syndrome. The persisting pathological findings correspond to the necessity of regular dental visits for performance of professional oral hygiene procedures, combined with programs for motivation and re-motivation.


carious lesions, white spots of demineralization, clinical manifestation, nephrotic syndrome

Full Text


Пенева, М. Зъбният кариес през XXI век. София, Изток-запад, 2008. 292 с. ISBN 954-321-434-1

Херолд, Герд. Вътрешни болести. Ч. II. София, МИ „Шаров”, 2011. с. 182-233.

Adulyanon, S., J. Vourapukjaru, A. Sheiham. Oral impacts affecting daily performance in a low dental disease Thai population. // Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 24, 1996, 385-389.

Alm, A., L. Wendt, G. Koch. Dental treatment of the primary dentition in 7-12 year-old Swedish children in relation to caries experience at 6 years of age. // Swed Dent J, 28, 2004, 61-66.

Armfield, J. M., A.J. Spencer, K. F. Roberts-Thomson et al. Water fluoridation and the association of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and dental caries in Australian children. // Am J Public Health, 103, 2013, 494–500. Doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2012.300889.

Arrow, P. Risk factors in the occurrence of enamel defects of the first permanent molars among schoolchildren in Western Australia. // Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 37, 2009, 5, 405-15. Doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0528.2009.00480.x.

Beentjes, V. E., K. L. Weerheijm, H. J. Groen. Factors involved in the aetiology of molar-incisor hypomineralisation (MIH). // Eur J Paediatr Dent, 3, 2002, 1, 9-13.

Burt, B. A., S. Pai. Sugar consumption and caries risk: A systematic review. // J Dent Educ, 65, 2001, 1017–1023.

Burt, B. A., S.A. Eklund, K. J. Morgan et al. The effects of sugars intake and frequency of investigation on dental caries increment in a three-year longitudinal study. // J Dent Res, 67, 1998, 1422–1429. Doi: 10.1177/00220345880670111201.

Cataldo, W. L., F. G. Oppenheim. Physical and chemical aspects of saliva as indicators of risk for dental caries in humans. // J Dent Ed, 65, 2001, 10, 1054-1062.

Featherstone, J. D. The caries balance: Contributing factors and early detection. // J Calif Dent Assoc, 31, 2003, 2, 129-133.

Featherstone, J. D. The caries balance: The basis for caries management by risk assessment. // Oral Health Prev Dent, 2, 2004, Suppl 1, 259-264.

Fontana, M., D. T. Zero. Assessing patients’ caries risk. // J Am Dent Assoc, 137, 2006, 9, 1231–1239.

Johansson, I., P.L. Holgerson, N. R. Kressin et al. Snacking habits and caries in young children. // Caries Res, 44, 2010, 421–430. Doi: 10.1159/000318569.

Kidd, E. A. M. Essentials of dental caries. The disease and its management. 3rd ed. Oxford University Press, 2005. ISBN 0 19 852978 3

Lăcătuşu, S., A. Ghiorghe. Clinical aspects of the evolution of dental caries and periodontal disease in patients treated with corticosteroids. // Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi, 108, 2004, 4, 899-902.

Lingstrom, P., J. van Houte, S. Kashket. Food starches and dental caries. // Crit Rev Oral Biol Med, 11, 2000, 366–380. Doi: 10.1177/10454411000110030601.

Litt, M. D., S. Reisine, N. Tinanoff. Multidimensional causal model of dental caries development in low-income pre-school children. // Public Health Reports, 110, 1995, 4, 607-617.



Font Size