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Varna Medical Forum

Key Etiological Factors Regarding Early Childhood Caries - A Clinical Case Report

Miroslav Stoykov, Daniela Petrova, Sirma Angelova


INTRODUCTION: Early childhood caries is the most common chronic bacterial and behavioral disease of the hard tooth tissues. It manifests with circular lesions on both vestibular and lingual surfaces of upper deciduous incisors and molars of children in early childhood. According to the international nomenclature early childhood concerns the period between one and three years of age. The pace with which the carious lesions are developing is determined by various factors. Key etiological factors are: susceptible macro-organism, early maternal transmission of infectious agents connected with dental caries such as Str. mutans et Str. sobrinus; increased consumption of food rich in disaccharides, especially sugar-containing products; quantitative and qualitative features of the saliva; oral hygiene level. Discussing the specifics of early childhood caries, we have to put emphasis on: delayed beginning of teeth brushing, incessant breastfeeding with prolonged duration, bottle-feeding before sleeping, low socio-economic and educational status of parents, respectively absence of health education and culture, as well as lack of behavioral control.

AIM: The aim of the present clinical case report is to assess the significance of the key etiological factors regarding the oral status of pediatric patients who are diagnosed with early childhood caries.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present a clinical case report of two twin patients, 4 years old, who visited the Faculty of Dental Medicine at the Medical University of Varna. Clinical, epidemiological and sociological methods were used to characterize and assess the oral status of the patients.

RESULTS: After a careful anamnesis data recording and a profound clinical examination, the diagnosis of early childhood caries has been established in both patients. A treatment plan has been composed, including both operative and non-operative methods of treatment of the registered carious lesions. Dietary habits and attitude of patients towards oral hygiene procedures must be revised.

CONCLUSION: Doctors of dental medicine and human doctors should work together in order to meet and adequately respond to the needs of young patients for complex therapeutic and prophylactic care, with the purpose of ensuring and improving their general health status, as well as providing and maintaining proper oral health.


early childhood caries, etiological factors, transmission, common health status

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