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Varna Medical Forum

Estuarine mud: a natural protection of joint cartilage

Evgeniya Vladeva, Katerina Kirova


Osteoarthritis, a joint disease characterized by cartilage degeneration, osteophyte formation, and changes in the joint capsule, affects multiple structures surrounding the joint, including muscles, tendons, and ligaments.


With a growing interest in non-drug and non-surgical approaches for osteoarthritis prevention and treatment, physical and rehabilitation medicine, along with mud therapy, have gained attention.


Mud, a natural product resulting from various chemical, biological, and microbiological processes involving soil particles and organic and inorganic compounds, possesses remarkable anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and immune-stimulant properties. Furthermore, it enhances blood circulation, metabolic activity, and strengthens the bone system. The high mineral concentration in mud from sea estuaries is believed to give it unique healing properties.


The specific effects of estuarine mud stem from its composition: sulphur and humic acids inhibit hyaluronidase and stimulate the formation of cytokines, which determine its chondroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. Alongside traditional osteoarthritis treatment options like medication, physiotherapy, balneotherapy, lifestyle changes, and surgery, mud therapy stands out as a promising alternative.


Studies have demonstrated that Liman mud significantly reduces inflammation, eases pain, and boosts the immune system. Additionally, it enhances blood circulation and metabolic processes, leading to improved tissue nourishment and faster regeneration. The healing properties of mud are attributed to a complex interaction of thermal, chemical, mechanical, electrodynamic, biological, and other factors. In particular, thermal and chemical elements play a crucial role in determining the outcomes of the healing process.


osteoarthritis, mud therapy, estuarine mud

Full Text


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