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Varna Medical Forum

Health consequences of obesity – a review

Elis Rafailova, Stefka Valcheva-Kuzmanova


Introduction: Currently, obesity is a global concern that impacts individuals of all ages, including young people. Its association with metabolic syndrome and related health issues is particularly noteworthy. Surprisingly, one-third of obese adults are considered metabolically healthy; however, they still face a heightened risk of developing diseases.

Aim: This review aimed to provide an overview of the literature on the mechanisms underlying organ damage brought on by obesity.

Materials and Methods: The review was conducted using a variety of web-based databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect.

Results: Adipocytes release a variety of substances that affect homeostasis. Eating a diet high in calories causes activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which raises blood pressure. Increased renal flow, glomerular capillary pressure, and glomerular filtration rate are among the hemodynamic changes it induces in the kidneys, which are linked to the development of microalbuminuria and renal injury. The exact mechanism causing these changes is unknown. One factor contributing to hypertension is the elevated sympathetic tone. Among the pathways that have been proposed as responsible for the development of endothelial dysfunction in obesity are oxidative stress, vascular proinflammatory agents, decreased antioxidant defense, and oxidized low-density lipoproteins. Vascular events occur as a consequence of these changes. Low-grade inflammation also plays a role in the development of steatofibrosis and simple steatosis in the liver. Obesity affects the heart by raising systolic and diastolic blood pressure, as well as the volume of blood and heart rate. The heart geometry is impacted by this modification.

Conclusion: Obesity negatively affects health. Reducing adiposity can lead to improvements in obesity-induced organ damage.


obesity, organ damage, heart, kidney, liver

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