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Izvestia Journal of the Union of Scientists - Varna. Medicine and Ecology Series

Adaptation abilities of the human body in extreme conditions - where are the limits?

Maya Nikova, Berna Metin, Dzhemile Dervish, Zlatislav Stoyanov, Lyubka Decheva


This is a review dedicated to the innovations in the field of thermoregulation, the role of brown adipose tissue and its regulation, and the application of this knowledge in treating some diseases.

Under the influence of environmental factors mechanisms, which ensure optimal adaptation of the organism to various circumstances, are created. Thermoregulation is a significant moment in adaptation reactions and includes different processes for preserving and sustaining normal body temperature. In low temperatures thermogenesis is activated. The application of modern scientific methods expands our knowledge of the functioning of brown adipose tissue and its role in thermoregulatory and metaboloregulatory thermogenesis. New data define the role of adrenergic control in the regulation of brown adipose tissue. The purposeful control of thermoregulation responses is a challenge to researchers. The results of experiments with rodents suggest possibilities to apply in clinical practice induced hypothermia in patients with brain or cardiac ischemia, as an antipyretic. It is considered even in the metabolic regulation of humans during prolonged space flights.

Interesting are also the results from the application of a healing approach, which includes extreme cold and breathing techniques. The willful activation of the sympathetic nervous system affects in a positive way the inflammatory factors and immune response and can be beneficial for patients with autoimmune diseases.


thermoregulation, brown adipose tissue, thermogenesis

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