Scientific Online Resource System

Journal of Varna Medical College

Immunomodulating and antitumor effect of Agaricus blazei, Coriolus versicolor, Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa

Antoaneta Tsvetkova, Antonia Hristova, Dimana Dimitrova, Desislava Aleksandrova, Silvia Mihaylova, Momchil Lambev


The curative use of mushrooms has a long tradition in Asian countries, whereas their use in the Western countries has gradually increased in recent decades. Some of the studied mushrooms are among the most powerful stimulators and modulators of the immune system. Their healing properties are highly valued and subject to many studies. They lower cholesterol, help reduce weight loss, and help control diabetes. Their benefits are thoroughly researched and documented. Most attention is attracted by their anticancer properties. There are many mushrooms with powerful anticancer properties, but the best results are obtained with the use of preparations containing extracts from more than one type of fungus. Some studies have shown that polysaccharide is the main component with an antitumor effect.

The molecular weight, branching rate, number of substitutions as well as ultrastructure, including the presence of single and triple helices significantly affect the biological activities of beta-glucans. Higher antitumor activity appears to be correlated with higher molecular weight, lower branching, and greater water-soluble beta-glucans.


antitumor activity, mushroom extract, immunomodulator, adjuvant therapy, beta-glucan

Full Text


C.U. Lima, C.O. Cordova, O.D. N´obrega, S.S. Funghetto, and M.G. Karnikowski, “Does the Agaricus blazei Murill mushroom have properties that affect the immune system? an integrative review”, Journal of Medicinal Food, vol. 14, no. 1-2, pp. 2–8, 2011

M. L. C. Gonzaga, N. M. P. S. Ricardo, F. Heatley, and S. D. A. Soares, “Isolation and characterization of polysaccharides from Agaricus blazei Murill”, Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 43–49, 2005.

H.Kawagishi, T.Kanao, R.Inagakietal., “Formolysis of a potent antitumor (1 → 6)-?-d-glucan-protein complex from Agaricus blazei fruiting bodies and antitumor activity of the resulting products”, Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 393–403, 1990.

C.-H. Shu and B.-J. Wen, “Enhanced shear protection and increased production of an anti-tumorpolysaccharide by Agaricus blazei in xanthan-supplemented cultures”, Biotechnology Letters, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 873–876, 2003.

M.L. Gonzaga, D.P. Bezerra, A.P. Alvesetal., “In vivo growth inhibition of Sarcoma 180 byan ?-(1 → 4)-glucan-?-(1 → 6)glucan-protein complex polysaccharide obtained from Agaricus blazeiMurill”, Journal of Natural Medicines, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 32 – 40, 2009.

T.Mizuno, T.Hagiwara, T.Nakamuraetal., “Antitumor activity and some properties of water-soluble polysaccharides from ‘Himematsutake’, the fruiting body of Agaricus blazei Murill”, Agricultural and Biological Chemistry, vol. 54, pp. 2889 – 2896, 1990.

Paterson RR. Ganoderma—a therapeutic fungal biofactory. Phytochemistry. 2006; 67(18):1985–2001.

Kao CHJ, Jesuthasan AC, Bishop KS, Glucina MP, Ferguson LP. Anti-cancer activities of Ganoderma lucidum: active ingredients and pathways. FFHD. 2013; 3(2):48-65.

Valverde ME, Hernández-Pérez T, Paredes-López O. Edible mushrooms: improving human health and promoting quality life. Int J Microbiol. 2015; 2015: 376387.

Lin ZB. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of immuno-modulation by Ganoderma lucidum. J Pharmacol Sci. 2005; 99(2):144-153.

Ko HH, Hung CF, Wang JP, Lin CN. Antiinflammatory triterpenoids and steroids from Ganoderma lucidum and G. tsugae. Phytochemistry. 2008; 69(1): 234-239.

Sanodiya BS, Thakur GS, Baghel RK, Prasad GB, Bisen PS. Ganoderma lucidum: a potent pharmacological macrofungus. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2009; 10(8): 717-742.

Jong SC, Birmingham JM. Medicinal benefits of the mushroom Ganoderma. Adv Appl Microbiol. 1992; 37:101-134.

Wachtel-Galor S, Yuen J, Buswell JA, Benzie IFF. Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi or Reishi): a medicinal mushroom. In: Benzie IFF, Wachtel-Galor S, eds. Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects. 2nd ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2011: 53-76.

Smina TP, De S, Devasagayam TPA, Adhikari S, Janardhanan KK. Ganoderma lucidum total triterpenes prevent radiation-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in splenic lymphocytes in vitro. Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen. 2011; 726(2): 188-194.

Zhang W, Tao J, Yang X, et al. Antiviral effects of two Ganoderma lucidum triterpenoids against enterovirus 71 infection. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 449(3): 307-312.

Kim YS, Eo SK, Oh KW, Lee C, Han SS. Antiherpetic activities of acidic protein bound polysacchride isolated from Ganoderma lucidum alone and in combinations with interferons. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000; 72(3):451-458.

Zhang J, Tang Q, Zimmerman-Kordmann M, Reutter W, Fan H. Activation of B lymphocytes by GLIS, a bioactive proteoglycan from Ganoderma lucidum. Life Sci. 2002; 71(6):623-638.

Lu H, Kyo E, Uesaka T, Katoh O, Watanabe H. A water-soluble extract from cultured medium of Ganoderma lucidum (Rei-shi) mycelia suppresses azoxymethane-induction of colon cancers in male F344 rats. Oncol Rep. 2003; 10(2): 375-379.

Thyagarajan A, Jedinak A, Nguyen H, et al. Triterpenes from Ganoderma lucidum induce autophagy in colon cancer through the inhibition of p38 mitogenactivated kinase (p38 MAPK). Nutr Cancer. 2010; 62(5): 630-640.

Gao Y, Zhang R, Zhang J, et al. Study of the extraction process and in vivo inhibitory effect of ganoderma triterpenes in oral mucosa cancer. Molecules. 2011; 16(7): 5315-5332.

Niksic M, Nikicevic N, Tesevic V, Klaus A. Evaluation of Alcoholic Beverages Based on Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.: Fr.) P. Karst. Extract. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2001; 3(2-3):1.

Cheng S, Sliva D. Ganoderma lucidum for cancer treatment: we are close but still not there. Integr Cancer Ther. 2015; 14(3): 249-257.

Liu RM, Li YB, Zhong JJ. Cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects of novel ganoderic acid derivatives on human cervical cancer cells in vitro. Eur J Pharmacol. 2012; 681(1-3): 23-33.

Liu RM, Zhong JJ. Ganoderic acid Mf and S induce mitochondria mediated apoptosis in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells. Phytomedicine. 2011; 18(5): 349-355.

Jiang J, Grieb B, Thyagarajan A, Sliva D. Ganoderic acids suppress growth and invasive behavior of breast cancer cells by modulating AP-1 and NF-kappa B signaling. Int J Mol Med. 2008; 21(5): 577-584.

Wu GS, Song YL, Yin ZQ, et al. Ganoderiol A-enriched extract suppresses migration and adhesion of MDA-MB-231 cells by inhibiting FAK-SRCpaxillin cascade pathway. PLoS One. 2013; 8(10):e76620.

Loganathan J, Jiang J, Smith A, et al. The mushroom Ganoderma lucidum suppresses breast-to-lung cancer metastasis through the inhibition of pro-invasive genes. Int J Oncol. 2014; 44(6):2009-2015.

Li A, Shuai X, Jia Z, et al. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide extract inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma growth by downregulating regulatory T cells accumulation and function by inducing microRNA-125b. J Transl Med. 2015; 13:100.

Kim H, Suh HJ, Kang CM, Lee KH, Hwang JH, Yu KW. Immunological activity of ginseng is enhanced by solid-state culture with Ganoderma lucidum mycelium. J Med Food. 2014; 17(1):150-160.

Wang SY, Hsu ML, Hsu HC, et al. The anti-tumor effect of Ganoderma lucidum is mediated by cytokines released from activated macrophages and T lymphocytes. Int J Cancer. 1997; 70(6):699-705.

Chen WC, Hau DM. Effects of Ganoderma lucidum on cellular immunocompetence in gamma-irradiated mice. Phytother Res. 1995; 9(7): 533-535.

Sheng S. The urokinase-type plasminogen activator system in prostate cancer metastasis. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2001; 20(3-4): 287-296.

Chen, X.P.; Wang, W.X.; Li, S.B.; Xue, J.L.; Fan, L.J.; Sheng, Z.J.; Chen, Y.G. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of Lingzhi polysaccharides using response surface methodology and its inhibitory effects on cervical cancer cells. Carbohydr. Polym. 2010, 80, 944-948.

Xu, Z.T.; Chen, X.P.; Zhong, Z.F.; Chen, L.D.; Wang, Y.T. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides: Immunomodulation and potential anti-tumor activities. Am. J. Chin. Med. 2011, 39, 15-27.

Sun, L.X.; Lin, Z.B.; Li, X.J.; Li, I.; Lu, J.; Duan, X.S.; Ge, Z.H.; Song, Y.X.; Xing, E.H.; Li, W.D. Promoting effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on B16F10 cells to activate lymphocytes. Basic Clin. Pharmacol. 2011, 108, 149-154.

Li, F.L.; Zhang, Y.M.; Zhong, Z.J. Antihyperglycemic effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 6135-6145.

Chan, K.K.; Yao, T.J.; Jones, B.; Jones, J.F.; Zhao, F.K.; Leung, C.Y.; Lau, S.K.; Yip, M.W.; Ngan, H.Y. The use of Chinese herbal medicine to improve quality of life in women undergoing chemotherapy for ovarian cancer: A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial with immunological monitoring. Ann. Oncol. 2011, 22, 2241-2249.

Lam, W.; Bussom, S.; Guan, F.; Jiang, Z.; Zhang, W.; Gullen, E.A.; Liu, S.H.; Cheng, Y.C. The four-herb Chinese medicine PHY906 reduces chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity. Sci. Transl. Med. 2010, 2, 45-59.

Yoshimura K, Ueda N, Ichioka K, Matsui Y, Terai A, Arai Y. Use of complementary and alternative medicine by patients with urologic cancer: a prospective study at a single Japanese institution. Support Care Cancer 2005; 13: 685-90.

Hobbs C. Medicinal Mushrooms. Santa Cruz: Botanica Press, 1995.

Lelley J. Die Heilkraft der Pilze. Berlin: ECON-Verlag, 1997.

Chang ST, Miles PG. Mushrooms biology - a new discipline. Mycologist 1992; 6:64-5

Hawksworth DL. Mushrooms: the extent of the unexplored potential. Int J Med Mushrooms 2001; 3:333-7.

Ulrike Lindequist, Timo H. J. Niedermeyer and Wolf-Dieter Julich; The Pharmacological Potential of Mushrooms; eCAM 2005; 2(3)285-299 doi:10.1093/ecam/neh107

Zhou S, Gao Y. The immunomodulating effects of Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.:Fr.) P.Karst (LingZhi, Reishi Mushroom) (Aphylloromycetidae). Int J Med Mushrooms 2002; 4:1-11.

Nanba H, Hamaguchi A, Kuroda H. The chemical structure of an antitumor polysaccharide in fruit bodies of Grifola frondosa (maitake). Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1987; 35:1162-8.

Kodama N, Komuta K, Nanba H. Effect of maitake (Grifola frondosa) D-fraction on the activation of NK cells in cancer patients. J Med Food 2003; 6:371-7.

Jennifer Man-Fan Wan, Wai-Hung Sit, Xiaotong Yang, Pingping Jiang and Leo Lap-Yan Wong; Polysaccharopeptides derived from Coriolus versicolor potentiate the S-phase specific cytotoxicity of Camptothecin (CPT) on human leukemia HL-60 cells

Gary Deng, Hong Lin, Andrew Seidman, Monica Fornier, Gabriella D`Andrea, Kathleen Wesa, Simon Yeung, Susanna Cunningham-Rundles, Andrew J. Vickers, Barrie Cassileth; A phase I/II trial of a polysaccharide extract from Grifola frondosa (Maitake mushroom) in breast cancer patients: immunological effects; J Cancer Res Clin Oncol . 2009 September ; 135(9): 1215-1221. doi:10.1007/s00432-009-0562-z

Yuki Masuda, Yoshiaki Nakayama, Akihiro Tanaka, Kenta Naito, Morichika Konishi; Antitumor activity of orally administered maitake α-glucan by stimulating antitumor immune response in murine tumor; PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0173621 March 9, 2017

Yang QY. A new biological response modifier - PSP. In: Chang ST (ed). Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products. Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press, 1993, 247-59.

Adachi Y, Suzuki Y, Jinushi T, Yadomae T, Ohno N. Th1-oriented immunomodulating activity of gel-forming fungal (1-3)-beta-glucans. Int J Med Mushrooms 2002; 4:95-109.

Hang Wang, Zhiming Fu, and Chunchao Han “The Medicinal Values of Culinary-Medicinal Royal Sun Mushroom (Agaricus blazei Murrill)”; Hindawi Publishing Corporation Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Volume 2013, ArticleID 842619,6pages

Tsuchiya M, Kono H, Matsuda M, Fujii H, Rusyn I. Protective effect of Juzen-taiho-to on hepatocarcinogenesis is mediated through the inhibition of Kupffer cell-induced oxidative stress. Int J Cancer 2008; 123:2503–11


Font Size