Scientific Online Resource System

Scripta Scientifica Medicinae Dentalis

Bad breath and its association with age and gender

Vladimir Panov


Halitosis is a health condition associated with an unpleasant odor from the oral cavity. The origin of bad breath may be related to systemic and oral conditions, but the large percentage of cases (about 85%) are related to oral factors.

Our aim was to investigate the presence and degree of halitosis in healthy patients and to compare it accordance with age and gender. We examined 79 healthy patients with an apparatus to measure bad breath - HC-212SF FitScan Breath Checker of Tanita Corporation of America, Inc.

We obtained a result of 0.87 for the group under 18 years old, 1 for the group 19-51 years old and 1.5 for the group over 51 years. In our study the average value was 0.88 for men and 1.39 for women.

Of all tested persons about one-third did not show any bad smell, while 77 percent have some degree of positive result. Considering the condition in relation to gender, we observed that 43% of men and 25% of women do not have a bad odor from the mouth.

About 29% had the lowest positive value (1), value 2 about 28% and only 1.3% had a very high degree of halitosis.

This study indicates augmentation of the values of bad breath with the increasing of age. Women have a bad smell from the mouth more often. In all age groups we observed higher degree of bad breath in women.


bad breath, halitosis, age, gender

Full Text


Tomás Carmona I, Limeres Posse J, Diz Dios P, Fernández Feijoo J, Vázquez García E, Extraoral etiology of halitosis. Med Oral. 2001 Jan-Feb;6(1):40-47.

Mokeem SA. Halitosis: a review of the etiologic factors and association with systemic conditions and its management. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2014 Nov 1;15(6):806-811.

Cortelli JR, Barbosa MD, Westphal MA. Halitosis: a review of associated factors and therapeutic approach. Braz Oral Res. 2008;22 Suppl 1:44-54.

Krasteva A, Panov Vl., Krasteva A., Kisselova A. Oral cavity and systemic diseases - Helicobacter pylori and dentistry. Biotechnol & Biotechnol EQ. 2011;25:2447-2451.

Krasteva A, Kisselova A, Dineva V, Panov Vl, Ivanova A, Krastev Z, Presence of helicobacter pylori in patients with oral malodor. J of IMAB 2013; 19(4):419-421.

Guglielmi M, Beushausen M, Feng C, Beech A, Baur D, Halitosis as a product of hepatic disease. SADJ. 2014 Sep;69(8):364-367.

Panov Vl. Oral manifestations of hepatitis C virus, J of IMAB 2013, 19(4):377-379.

Motta LJ, Bachiega JC, Guedes CC, Laranja LT, Bussadori SK., Association between halitosis and mouth breathing in children Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2011 Jun; 66(6): 939-942.

Nadanovsky P, Carvalho LB, Ponce de Leon A., Oral malodour and its association with age and sex in a general population in Brazil. Oral Dis. 2007 Jan;13(1):105-109.

Evirgen S, KamburoÄŸlu K, Gulsahi A. Effect of clinician's experience, age, gender and calibration on the assessment of halitosis. Oral Health Prev Dent. 2013;11(1):17-22.

Ciçek Y, Arabaci T, Canakçi CF.Evaluation of oral malodour in left- and right-handed individuals. Laterality. 2010 May;15(3):317-326.

Villa A, Zollanvari A, Alterovitz G, Cagetti MG, Strohmenger L, Abati S. Influence of different toothpaste abrasives on the bristle end-rounding quality of toothbrushes. Int J Dent Hygiene 12, 2014; 208-212.



About The Author

Vladimir Panov
Medical University of Varna

Font Size