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Craniofacial trauma - a review of the predominant fractures of the bones in the area

Yulia Atanasova, Miroslav Stoykov, Tina Traykova, Karen Dzhabalyan, Tsvetan Tonchev


Introduction: Craniofacial trauma can often pose a direct threat to the patient`s life. The specific an­atomical features of the area, combined with the possible complications during the healing period ne­cessitate urgent diagnosis and treatment, including profound radiological investigation. The aim of this review is to evaluate incidence, mechanism of occurrence, treatment and complications of trau­matic injuries in the maxillofacial region.

Materials and methods: The following review was conducted among a number of scientific literature in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery. This study reviewed Bulgarian and English language publications with keywords such as `fractures, trauma, maxillofacial`. The search revealed 32 full-text articles, published in PubMed and Google Scholar.

Results: The present study came to results similar to other reviews, regarding trauma in the max­illofacial region. Fractures of the facial bones tend to be comminuted especially if there has been a motor vehicle accident. Men are affected more often than women. Fractures of the mandible are 12 times more frequent than those of the maxilla. The most common local complication are inflamma­tion processes. Younger patients suffered from trauma affecting teeth and jawbones whereas elderly patients experienced fractures of the jaw and the facial bones combined with injuries of the soft fa­cial tissues.

Conclusion: This systematic review clarifies that craniofacial trauma might reduce in a substantial way the quality of a patient`s life. The process of recovery could be distorted due to vision impair­ment, ageusia or other sensory disorders. Functional deficits in speaking and hearing capabilities, along with facial deformities can influence the mental health of the patient.


comminuted fractures; maxilla; mandible; sensory disorders; trauma



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