Scientific Online Resource System

Annual for Hospital Pharmacy

The puzzle of clinical coding. Overview and options

Petko Salchev, Anita Neeva


Clinical coding is a key element in modern medical services, representing a puzzle that accurately places medical information in the right place. This includes standardized codes and terminologies that allow unambiguous and systematic representation of medical data. The clinical coding puzzle has several aspects, including diagnoses, procedures, medications, and other aspects in medical practice. Accurate and comprehensive coding ensures quality and interoperable medical information, which supports decision making and optimal delivery of medical services. But this puzzle also poses challenges such as complexity of systems, different standards, and the need to train medical professionals. In the deployment of clinical coding, ongoing work to improve standards, training, and the use of automation technologies will aid in achieving the full potential of this important element in the health information system.


clinical coding, coding systems, classification, codes, ICD.

Full Text



Alonso V, Santos JV, Pinto M, et al. Health records as the basis of clinical coding: Is the quality adequate? A qualitative study of medical coders’ perceptions. Health Information Management Journal. 2020;49(1):28-37. doi:10.1177/1833358319826351;

МКБ 10, том 2, СЗО, 2003; › World;

Robert Jakob, in International Encyclopedia of Public Health (Second Edition), 2017;

МКБ-10 5-то издание от 2021 г.,;

International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD);

Moriyama et al., 2011;

White A. Digital media and society: transforming economics, politics and social practices. New York: Palgrave Macmillan; 2014,;

Diagnosis-Related Groups in Europe, Edited by Reinhard Busse, Alexander Geissler,Wilm Quentin, Miriam Wiley, Open University, с. 74.

Jetté et al., 2010; Световна здравна организация, 2015

The ATC/DDD Methodology,

ATC/DDD Index 2023,

Application of the International Classification of Diseases to Dentistry and Stomatology, Third Edition, World Health Organization Geneva 1995

LOINC Term Basics,;

The value of SNOMED CT,

Anand K, Saini S, Singh B, Veermaram C. Global medical device nomenclature: the concept for reducing device-related medical errors. J Young Pharm. 2010 Oct;2(4):403-9. doi: 10.4103/0975-1483.71637. PMID: 21264103; PMCID: PMC3019382