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The effect of X-ray radiation on the human body - pros and cons. Radiation protection in medical imaging and radiotherapy

Zhenya Zhekova-Maradzhieva, Bistra Velchovska, Atanas Uzunov, Evgeniya Ivanova, Desislava Petrova, Mariana Yordanova, Georgi Valchev


INTRODUCTION: The discovery of X-rays in November 1895 by Roentgen opened a new chapter in the scientif­ic development and pretty soon it became clear that these rays can be useful for diagnostics and treatment. The most frequent use of X-rays is related to their ability to pass through matter. The main fields of application of the rays are medicine, industry, checks of goods and packages and scientific studies. Modern medicine consti­tutes approximately 80% of the overexposure. The contribution of diagnostic radiology is approximately 22% of the total exposure of Bulgarian population. The quality of the medical services depends to a great extent on the accurate and timely diagnoses set through different methods using also ionizing radiation. The exposure of the patient should be reasonably justified and optimized but cannot be limited. The risk of exposure to high doses of radiation is justified only if this is appropriate for the diagnosis or the treatment. Each overexposure, including medical irradiation, is related to certain radiation risk. Radiation protection is a means to apply the measures intended to protect the health from ionizing radiation-related risks. It is essential to know the bene­fits and risks of the medical procedures.

AIM: To investigate radiation protection means, and the benefits and risks of medical procedures.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: An analysis of literature sources was conducted.

RESULTS: The medical control of the radiation protection divides exposure into three categories: professional exposure, medical exposure and exposure of the population. Irradiation by any source should be conducted by optimizing the protection and the safety, maintaining the size of the individual dose, the number of exposed persons and the exposure at levels as low as reasonably achievable considering the social and economic factors. This is the so-called optimization of the protection.

Full Text


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About The Authors

Zhenya Zhekova-Maradzhieva
Medical University of Varna

Student, TRS X-Ray Laboratory Assistant, Medical College

Bistra Velchovska
Medical University of Varna

Student, TRS X-Ray Laboratory Assistant, Medical College

Atanas Uzunov
Medical University of Varna

Student, TRS X-Ray Laboratory Assistant, Medical College

Evgeniya Ivanova
Medical University - Sofia

Student, TRS Assistant Pharmacist, Yordanka Filaretova Medical College

Desislava Petrova
Medical University of Varna

Student, TRS Assistant Pharmacist, Medical College

Mariana Yordanova
Medical University of Varna

TRS X-Ray Laboratory Assistant, Medical College

Georgi Valchev
St. Marina University Hospital, Varna

Department of Radiology

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