Scientific Online Resource System

Varna Medical Forum

Primary restorative fillings used in clinical practice

Dobrinka Mitkova Damyanova


Introduction: The purpose of the American Academy of Pediatric Dental Medicine (AAPD) is to provide guidance for pediatric dental practitioners to make decisions about what materials and techniques are appropriate for child fillings.

Materials and Methods: A total of 602 patients, children with primary, mixed and permanent teeth, who have received treatment with restorative fillings, were monitored. The minimum age of children was 3 and the maximum age of participants was 18 years of age. Patients were divided into 16 age groups. Patients underwent a pre-made risk assessment using a clinical instrument. Children included in the study had a proven high risk of developing caries dmft (T) > 1. This was a retrospective study based on participants’ medical records and examined the incidence, proportion and correlation of reversible and irreversible pulp inflammation diagnosed as d3, d4 cavitated caries lesions. The data was processed with a modern package of mathematical and statistical analysis SPSS v 20.0

Results: The inverse ratio, a strong dependence indicates that as age increases, fillings made of resin modified glass ionomer cements decrease (r = - 0.661; p < 0.001). The inverse ratio, proportional and moderate dependence proves that as the age increases, the number, frequency, and use of compomer fillings in children over 12 years of age decreases (r = - 0.368; p < 0.001). With proportional dependence, we found that with the increasing age, the number of placed silants in childhood increased (r = 0.646, p < 0.001).

Conclusion: In all tests we have shown a statistically significant difference. The inverse correlation, proves that with the increasing age of children the use of glass ionomer cements and the use of compomers fillings decreases.



primary teeth, restoration, fillings

Full Text


Андреева-Борисова РС. Рисков профил и профилактика на деца с преждевременно екстрахирани временни зъби: комплексно лечение – Терапевтични и ортодонтски аспекти. МУ-Варна. 2016;10-28.

Трифонова Г, Андреева-Борисова Р. Гингивит при деца с онкологични заболявания и клинично здрави деца. Известия на Съюза на учените – Варна. Серия медицина и екология. 2018; 23:147-151.

Andreeva R. Demografic characteristics of children treated under general anesthesia. Scripta Scientifica Salutis Publicae. 2018; 4:59-65.

Andreeva R. Dental status assessment of children treated under general anesthesia. Scripta Scientifica Medicinae Dentalis. 2018; 4(1):12-17.

Andreeva R. Assessment of the indications for dental treatment of children under general anesthesia. Scripta Scientifica Medicinae Dentalis. 2018; 4(1):18-22.

Andreeva R. Assessment of different types of materials of children treated under general anesthesia. MedInform. 2018; 2:858-862.

American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. Guideline on caries risk assessment and management for infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatr Dent. 2014;36(special issue):127-134.

Ahovuo-Saloranta A, Forss H, Walsh T, et al. Sealants for preventing dental decay in the permanent teeth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013;28(3):CD001830.

Borisova-Papancheva Ts, Panov Vl, Peev St, Papanchev G. Root-end filling materials – review. 2015;1(1):9-15.

Chadwick BL, Treasure ET, Playle RA. A randomised controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of glass ionomer sealants in pre-school children. Caries Res. 2005; 39(1):34-40.

Chadwick BL, Evans DJ. Restoration of Class II cavities in primary molar teeth with conventional and resin modified glass ionomer cements: A systematic review of the literature. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2007;8(1):14-21.

Cildir SK, Sandalli N. Fluoride release/uptake of glassionomer cements and polyacid-modified composite resins. Dent Mater J. 2005;24(1):92-97.

Damyanova DM. Severe Early Childhood Caries - A Clinical Case Report. Archives of Dentistry and Oral Health. 2019;2(1):12-18.

Daou MH, Attin T, Göhring TN. Clinical success of compomer and amalgam restorations in primary molars: Follow up in 36 months. Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed. 2009;119(11):1082-8.

Dimova–Gabrovska М, Dimitrova D, Yordanov B, Yankova M, Peev T. Advantages and Disadvantages of Paediatric Crown Prosthetic Treatment. J of IMAB. 2019 Jul-Sep;25(3):2695-2700.

Dimitrova D, Andreeva R, Dimova-Gabrovska M. Application of Aesthetic Crowns in Children Patients. Varna Medical Forum. 2018;7:173-177.

Dimitrov E, Georgieva M, Dimova-Gabrovska M, Andreeva R, Belcheva-Krivorova A. Preformed metal crowns as a prosthetic restorations in Pediatric Dentistry. J of IMAB. 2017 Jul-Sep;23(3):1627-1632.

Douglas WH, Lin CP. Strength of the new systems. In: Hunt PR, ed. Glass Ionomers: The Next Generation. Philadelphia, Pa.: International Symposia in Dentistry, PC. 1994:209-216.

Donly KJ. Restorative dentistry for children. Dent Clin North Am. 2013;57(1):75-82.

Dulgergil DT, Soyman M, Civelek A. Atraumatic re- storative treatment with resin-modified glass ionomer material: Short-term results of a pilot study. Med Princ Pract. 2005;14(3):277-280.

Duggal MS, Toumba KJ, Sharma NK. Clinical performance of a compomer and amalgam for the interprox- imal restoration of primary molars: A 24 month evaluation. Brit Dent J. 2002;193(6):339-342.

Feigal RJ, Musherure P, Gillespie B, Levy-Polack M, Quelhas I, Hebling J. Improved sealant retention with bonding agents: A clinical study of two-bottle and single-bottle systems. J Dent Res. 2000;79(11):1850-1856.

Gray SK, Griffin SO, Malvitz DM, Gooch BF. A com- parison of the effects of toothbrushing and handpiece prophylaxis on retention of sealants. J Am Dent Assoc. 2009;140(1):38-46.

Griffin SO, Jones K, Gray SK, Malvitz DM, Gooch BF. Exploring four-handed delivery and retention of resin- based sealants. J Am Dent Assoc. 2008;139(3):281-289.

Griffin SO, Gray SK, Malvitz DM, Gooch BF. Caries risk in formerly sealed teeth. J Am Dent Assoc. 2009;140(4):415-423.

Hotuman E, Rølling I, Poulsen S. Fissure sealants in a group of 3-4-year-old children. Int J Paediatr Dent. 1998;8(2):159-160.

Kühnisch J, Mansmann U, Heinrich-Weltzien, R, Hickel R. Longevity of materials for pit and fissure sealing— Results from a meta-analysis. Dent Mater. 2012;28(3):298-303.

MacLean J, Champagne C, Waggoner W, Ditmyer M, Casamassimo P. Clinical outcomes for primary anterior teeth treated with preveneered stainless steel crowns. Pediatr Dent. 2007;29(5):377-382.

Mandari GJ, Frencken JE, van’t Hof MA. Six years success rates of occlusal amalgam and glass ionomer re- storations placed using minimal intervention approaches. Caries Res. 2003;37(4):246-253.

Maher MM, Elkashlan HI, El-Housseiny AA. Effective- ness of a self-etching adhesive on sealant retention in primary teeth. Pediatr Dent. 2013;35(4):351-354.

Mitra SB, Kedrowski BL. Long-term mechanical properties of glass ionomers. Dent Mater. 1994;10(2):78-82.

Mickenautsch S, Yengopal V, Leal SC, Oliveira LB, Bezerra AC, Bonecker M. Absence of carious lesions at margins of glass-ionomer and amalgam restorations: A meta-analysis. Eur J Paediatr Dent. 2009;10(1):41-46.

Muller-Bolla M, Lupi-Pégurier L, Tardieu C, Velly AM, Antomarchi C. Retention of resin-based pit and fissure sealants: A systematic review. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2006;34(5):321-336.

Nicholson JW. Polyacid-modified composite resins (‘compomers’) and their use in clinical dentistry. Dent Mater. 2007;23(5):615-622.

Peng D, Smales RJ, Yip HK, Shu M. In vitro fluoride release from aesthetic restorative materials following recharging with APF gel. Aust Dent J. 2000;45(3):198-203.

Qvist V, Laurberg L, Poulsen A, Teglers PT. Eight-year study on conventional glass ionomer and amalgam restorations in primary teeth. Acta Odontol Scand. 2004;62(1):37-45.

Ram D, Fuks AB. Clinical performance of resin-bonded composite strip crowns in primary incisors: A retrospective study. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2006;16(1):49-54.

Raggio DP, Hesse D, Lenzi TL, Guglielmi CAB, Braga MM. Is atraumatic restorative treatment an option for restoring occluso-proximal caries lesions in primary teeth? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2013;23:435-443.

Swartz ML, Phillips RW, Clark HE. Long-term fluoride release from glass ionomer cements. J Dent Res. 1984;63(2):158-160.

Shah PV, Lee JY, Wright JT. Clinical success and parental satisfaction with anterior preveneered primary stainless steel crowns. Pediatr Dent. 2004;26(5):391-395.

Tam LE, Chan GP, Yim D. In vitro caries inhibition effects by conventional and resin-modified glass ionomer restorations. Oper Dent. 1997;22(1):4-14.

Tyas MJ. Cariostatic effect of glass ionomer cements: A 5-year clinical study. Aust Dent J. 1991;36(3):236-239.

Toh SL, Messer LB. Evidence-based assessment of toothcolored restorations in proximal lesions of primary molars. Pediatr Dent. 2007;29(1):8-15.

Wambier DS, dos Santos FA, Guedes-Pinto AC, Jaeger RG, Simionato MR. Ultrastructural and microbiological analysis of the dentin layers affected by caries lesions in primary molars treated by minimal intervention. Pediatr Dent. 2007;29(3):228-234.

Waggoner WF. Restoring primary anterior teeth. Pediatr Dent. 2002;24(5):511-516.

Welbury RR, Shaw AJ, Murray JJ, Gordon PH, McCabe JF. Clinical evaluation of paired compomer and glass ionomer restorations in primary molars: Final results after 42 months. Br Dent J. 2000;189(2):93-97.

Wilson AD, Kent BE. A new translucent cement for dentistry. The glass ionomer cement. Br Dent J. 1972;132 (4):33-35.



Font Size